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Eritrea NEWS

NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Sat, 16 Feb 2019 11:09:15 GMTGoogle News
Eritrean Public Diplomacy team arrive in Addis Ababa, Concert in 4 cities  borkena.com

Eritrean Public Diplomacy team in Addis Ababa. Concerts planned in four cities for Eritrean musicians ; the last one which is on February 21 will be in Addis ...

Bashir orders reopening of Sudan border with Eritrea  News24

Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir on Thursday announced the reopening of his country's eastern border with Eritrea, which has been shut since last year.

Italy to fund Ethiopia – Eritrea railway feasibility study – Abiy  africanews

Italy has pledged to finance a feasibility study for a planned rail line linking the Eritrean port city of Massawa and the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, Prime ...

Eritrea's Modernist architecture: a striking reminder of years of oppression  CityMetric

Those with an eye for architecture will notice something peculiar when visiting Eritrea's capital, Asmara. Dotted around the city are exceptional examples of ...

Embattled Sudan president reopens Eritrea border closed for a year  africanews

Addressing a crowd of supporters during a visit to the Kassala provincial capital near the border with Eritrea, Bashir said he was reaching out to Eritreans he ...

Eritrea speaks out against inhumane practices  African Daily Voice

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA (ADV) – The Eritrean head of Promotion and Information at the Ministry of Health branch in the Gash Barka region, Seltan ...

African Daily Voice
What did Canadian mining executives know about possible human rights violations in Eritrea?  CBC.ca

For years, Vancouver-based mining firm Nevsun Resources has dismissed allegations that forced labour was used to build its mine in the repressive east ...

Business Boom On Ethio-Eritrea Border Amid Brisk Birr-Nakfa Exchanges  Leadership Newspaper

The reopening of borders shut over two decades ago has often come with multi-pronged advantages, from the communal, familial and person – to – person ...

Leadership Newspaper
Ethiopia and Eritrea: Foreign minister Asselborn in Africa until Thursday  RTL Today

Here he will meet with president Sahle-Work Zewde, the first female president of the country. After that, Asselborn will travel to Eritrea. The visit to the two African ...

RTL Today
Sister of refugee claimant worries about her looming deportation to Eritrea  CBC.ca

The sister of a Eritrean woman being held at the Edmonton Remand Centre for refusing to sign her deportation order worries about her sibling's safety.

Danakali's potash project could be a game changer for Eritrea — UN  MINING.com

A United Nations report published Wednesday says Danakali's (ASX, LON:DNK) Colluli potash project has the potential to boost the economy of Eritrea, ...

Eritrea Humanitarian Situation Report: January-December 2018 - Eritrea  ReliefWeb

English Situation Report on Eritrea about Contributions, Coordination, Children, Persons with Disabilities and more; published on 23 Jan 2019 by UNICEF.

Eritrea: Various Activities By Eritreans in Diaspora  AllAfrica.com

The Eritrean Ambassador to the Republic of Italy, Mr. Fessehazion Pietros conducted seminar to Eritrean nationals residing in Bologna on the objective situation ...

Eritrean minors reunited with mother after eight-year odyssey  UNHCR

Kedija, 15, and Yonas, 12, survived kidnapping, detention, and a failed sea crossing before finally rejoining their mother in Switzerland.

Eritrean refuges flown to Niger from Libya  defenceWeb

A group of 159 Eritrean refugees were flow from Libyan capital Tripoli to Niger for resettlement, the United Nations said. The UN refugee agency (UNHCR) said ...

Ethiopia apologises after Dubai marathon fans 'erase Eritrea' from map  The National

The Ethiopian embassy in the UK has apologised for posting a picture of Dubai marathon supporters holding up an “erroneous” map of the country that failed to ...

The National
Humanitarian Action for Children 2019 - Eritrea - Eritrea  ReliefWeb

English Appeal on Eritrea about Education, Food and Nutrition, Children, Women and more; published on 30 Jan 2019 by UNICEF.

Uhuru to leave for Eritrea on Thursday - State House  The Star, Kenya

President Uhuru Kenyatta is expected to leave for Eritrea on Thursday. The last visit by a Kenyan President to the country was in 1999. Kenya is exploring ...

The Star, Kenya
Eritrea commemorates Operation Fenkil's 29th anniversary  African Daily Voice

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA (ADV) – This year marks 29 years since the Second Battle of Massawa, also known as Operation Fenkil and as the Fenkil ...

African Daily Voice
‘We felt we were reborn.’ Thousands of Eritrean refugees quietly welcomed to Canada  Toronto Star

There was no fanfare, no jostling of television cameras and no sign of the prime minister or elected officials at the airport to greet them. Unlike the media frenzy ...

Toronto Star
Desert Locust situation update 15 February 2019 - Sudan  ReliefWeb

English News and Press Release on Sudan and 4 other countries about Agriculture and Insect Infestation; published on 15 Feb 2019 by FAO.

Eritrea: NRS Culture and Sports Branch Activity Assessment Meeting  AllAfrica.com

The Culture and Sports Department at the Northern Red Sea region conducted activity assessment meeting on 13 February in the port city of Massawa.

Watch: Eritrean kids reunite with refugee mother after 8 years  Loop News Trinidad and Tobago

This is the tearjerking moment two Eritrean minors are reunited with their mother after an eight-year odyssey during which they endured kidnapping, detention, ...

Loop News Trinidad and Tobago
Danakali near-financing a positive sign for "shovel ready" Eritrean potash project  Proactive Investors Australia

Danakali Ltd (ASX:DNK) - The company's share price gained on the London exchange this week.

Proactive Investors Australia
East Africa: Heavy rains triggers a surge in desert locust populations  African Daily Voice

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA (ADV) – The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recently revealed that the heavy rains and cyclones have triggered a ...

African Daily Voice
Queen Sheba Eritrean Restaurant Celebrates its First Year in Tucson  Tucson Foodie

The one of a kind restaurant, Queen Sheba, is welcoming all to their one year anniversary celebration beginning at 1 p.m. on Saturday, January 19.

Tucson Foodie
Ethiopia Allows Almost 1 Million Refugees to Leave Camps, Go to Work  VOA News

Ethiopia passed a law Thursday giving almost 1 million refugees the right to work and live outside of camps, in a move praised for providing them with more ...

VOA News
Eritrea: Minister Osman Saleh holds talks in Luxemburg  Geeska Afrika

Asmara. 14 February 2019- Mr. Osman Saleh, Minister of Foreign Affairs, met and held talks today, 14 February at the office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with ...

Geeska Afrika
Politicizing Eritrea peace perpetuates conflict cycle  Ethiopia Insight

Ethiopia and Eritrea will soon unveil a roadmap to address past conflicts. What key issues does it need to confront to tackle the root causes?

Ethiopia Insight
Eritrean Community Festival in Australia Concludes  AllAfrica.com

Eritrean community festival in Australia that was underway from 11 January under the theme "New Era for Higher Development" concludes on 13 January with ...

Update: Somalia-Eritrea friendly Football match  Mareeg Media

Mareeg.com-The friendly match between Somalia and Eritrea that was due to be played in Mogadishu this week, has been postponed, Somali Football ...

Mareeg Media
Towards Singapore of Bab el Mandeb  New Business Ethiopia

BY ANDUALEM SISAY GESSESSE – Following the recent restoration of ties between Ethiopia and Eritrea, many speculated that Djibouti's economy would ...

New Business Ethiopia
Update: Asselborn Africa visit : Asselborn applauds historical reconciliation but criticises poor human rights record  RTL Today

Luxembourg's foreign minister met with his Ethiopian counterpart Osman Saleh Mohammed. Asselborn voiced both praise and criticism. Leaving a ...

RTL Today
Eritrean Delegation Arrives In Ethiopia  Geeska Afrika

Addis Ababa, February 14, 2019 (FBC) -An Eritrean Public and Cultural Diplomacy delegation drawn from all walks of life arrived in Addis Ababa Ethiopia today, ...

Geeska Afrika
Ethiopia-Eritrea border boom as peace takes hold  BBC News

The reopening of the border between former enemies Ethiopia and Eritrea has dramatically changed the towns near the frontier, writes the BBC's Emmanuel ...

BBC News
Ogaden: ONLF Signs Agreement for Mutual Cooperation  UNPO

On Friday, 8 February, the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) signed an agreement with Somali authorities to affirm commitment in face of the fact that ...

World Class Potash Project In Eritrea Moves Closer To Development  Forbes

Big new potash project starting to emerge in Eritrea.

Eritrea closes border crossings to Ethiopian travelers  WIS10

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (AP) — Eritrea has partially closed two border crossings with Ethiopia that opened this year after the former East African rivals made ...

Will Ethiopia's Democratic Awakening Catch On Next Door In Eritrea?  NPR

Ethiopia has stunned the world with its reforms. Eritreans face steep challenges if they want to follow suit.

Eritrea breakthrough as UN sanctions lifted  BBC News

The UN Security Council has unanimously agreed to lift sanctions against Eritrea after nine years. An arms embargo, asset freeze, and travel ban were imposed ...

BBC News
'Peace Is Everything': Ethiopia And Eritrea Embrace Open Border After Long Conflict  NPR

In July, the countries declared the war was over; a couple of months later, they opened their border for the first time in almost 20 years. Some analysts caution ...

Eritrean national cultural troupe departed to Ethiopia  Geeska Afrika

Asmara, 14 February 2019- Eritrean national cultural troupe comprising Sibrit and other legendary and young musicians and singers departed to Ethiopia today, ...

Geeska Afrika
Jailed without trace in Eritrea: 'I haven't seen my parents for 17 years'  BBC News

Ibrahim Sherifo, 30, has not seen or heard from his parents since he was 13 years old when they were "disappeared" in Eritrea. "The memory still haunts me ...

BBC News
Envoy says US aiming for warmer ties with Eritrea  News24

The United States wants better ties with Eritrea following this month's lifting of UN sanctions against the Horn of Africa nation, Washington's top Africa diplomat ...

6 Years After Her Imprisonment in Eritrea, US Citizen’s Family Demands Answers  VOA News

Ciham Ali Abdu has brown eyes and a broad smile. As a teenager, she found inspiration in art, fashion and language. Growing up in Asmara, Eritrea, she ...

VOA News
Life in Eritrea’s News Desert  Foreign Policy

Throughout Eritrea, Seyoum Tsehaye's photographs and films are well known, although they are difficult to access elsewhere. As a war photographer and ...

Foreign Policy
Best books to read on Eritrea  Quartz Africa

Up until 1993, Eritrea was not even a nation. But since then, the Horn of Africa country has been in the news for all the wrong reasons: for its repressive, ...

Quartz Africa
In secretive Eritrea, historic reforms across the border have sparked hopes for the future  The Globe and Mail

In rare interviews with a foreign visitor, residents of the tightly controlled African country tell Geoffrey York of their frustration at unlimited conscription, fear of the ...

The Globe and Mail
Ethiopia-Eritrea border reopens after 20 years  BBC News

Ethiopians and Eritreans have been celebrating the reopening of two key crossing points more than 20 years after a border war shut them. Hundreds of people ...

BBC News
Ethiopia and Eritrea Declare an End to Their War  The New York Times

Ethiopia and Eritrea on Monday formally declared an end to their “state of war,” a two-decade-long standoff that followed a brutal war over their shared border.

The New York Times
After 20-year military standoff, Ethiopia and Eritrea agree to normalize ties in historic breakthrough  The Washington Post

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed traveled Sunday to Eritrea, once a bitter adversary, and agreed to normalize ties after an ...

The Washington Post
Sanctions on Eritrea are lifted  The Economist

ERITREA HAD AN inauspicious start to the year. In January neighbouring Sudan accused it of supporting armed rebel groups and closed its border. Eritrea ...

The Economist
'It's just slavery': Eritrean conscripts wait in vain for freedom  The Guardian

With their hopes dashed that peace with Ethiopia would bring an end to national *service*, young Eritreans must either accept a life of forced labour or flee.

The Guardian
Ethiopia and Eritrea's second rapprochement  Al Jazeera English

Ethiopia and Eritrea should not repeat the mistakes of the 1990s, when a period of rapprochement ended in war.

Al Jazeera English
'I was euphoric': Eritrea's joy becomes Ethiopia's burden amid huge exodus  The Guardian

As a sevenfold increase in the number of Eritrean refugees arriving in Ethiopia stretches regional resources, fears are growing that the border may close again.

The Guardian
Eritrea's "state of uncertainty": Senior government sources reveal...nothing  African Arguments

Insiders say President Isaias is now ruling largely unilaterally, keeping the public, military leaders, and even ministers out of the loop. The lack of information ...

African Arguments
Eritrea, Africa’s most repressive state, begins to open up  The Economist

ERITREA, one of Africa's newest countries, was born in battle. First it fought for 30 years to break away from Ethiopia, its bigger neighbour to the south, achieving ...

The Economist
Eritrea dares to dream of change as peace with Ethiopia dawns  Times LIVE

Crushed tanks and trucks destroyed in Eritrea's war for independence from Ethiopia are piled up on the outskirts of Asmara, a rusting testament to a long and ...

Times LIVE
For the first time in years, Eritreans can leave their country freely  The Economist

THE hotels of Adigrat, an entrepot near Ethiopia's border with Eritrea, are always busy during Meskel, a feast celebrated annually by Orthodox Christians in both ...

The Economist
The lifting of UN sanctions will not solve Eritrea's problems  Al Jazeera English

Having gotten rid of international sanctions, the Eritrean regime is unlikely to change its repressive ways at home.

Al Jazeera English
There’s been a historic shift in Ethiopia-Eritrea relations, and this new book explores the countries’ rebellions  The Washington Post

The first commercial flight from Ethiopia to Eritrea in 20 years took place earlier this week, signifying a historic shift in relations between the two countries, ...

The Washington Post
Eritreans hope for democracy after peace deal with Ethiopia  BBC News

Many Eritreans are hoping that peace with Ethiopia will lead to an end to one-party rule at home.

BBC News
Jailed at 15 she dreamed of being a fashion designer. No trial and six years later, she's still missing  CNN

Lagos, Nigeria (CNN) With her *fresh* face and bright, hopeful smile, Ciham Ali Ahmed looks just like any other ninth grader. But Ali Ahmed was imprisoned at 15 ...

Ethiopian Airlines makes historic flight to Eritrea  BBC News

Roses and champagne have been given to passengers on the first commercial flight between Ethiopia and Eritrea in 20 years. Ethiopian Airlines said its "bird of ...

BBC News
Ethiopia moving troops from Eritrean border amid new peace  News24

Ethiopian military officials say they are moving troops away from the border with Eritrea, months after the former rivals made a surprising peace.

Eritrea-Ethiopia peace leads to a refugee surge  IRINnews.org

A group of Eritreans lines up outside a small, green army tent surrounded by yellow scrubland at the top of a ridge marking the Ethiopia-Eritrea border.

‘Like a dream’: Families separated for decades by Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict celebrate peace deal  The Washington Post

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — When Daniel Gayem's father in Ethiopia wanted to talk to his brother in neighboring Eritrea, they would set up a conference call ...

The Washington Post
Eritrea to trim the size of its military as détente opens future  Business Day

Addis Ababa — Eritrea says it will cut the size of its army as part of changes to a system of mandatory national *service* the UN blames for propelling tens of ...

Business Day
Eritrea and Somalia agree to restore diplomatic relations  Al Jazeera English

The move comes weeks after Eritrea and Ethiopia signed an historic peace deal, establishing relations between the two.

Al Jazeera English
Ethiopia-Eritrea officially open border crossing point  africanews

In September last year, there was symbolic reopening of border crossings between the two countries months after a peace deal that ended decades of "no ...

Eritrea consolidates Horn of Africa peace  Al Jazeera English

Restoration of diplomatic relations among Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia signals an end to region's conflict.

Al Jazeera English
Russia-Eritrea Relations Grow with Planned Logistics Center  VOA News

Russia and Eritrea expand their bilateral relationship with a planned logistics center in East Africa.

VOA News
Eritrea: A tour of the tiny African nation you never thought you'd visit  The Independent

The silent Grundig wireless sets, empty wine bottles and tired musical instruments made for diverting lunch decor in Ghibabo. Young men and women at a ...

The Independent
WATCH: Thousands join Ethiopia-Eritrea peace run  News24

Thousands of Ethiopians and Eritreans have taken part in a 10km reconciliation run Sunday in Addis Ababa in the first joint sporting event since the former bitter ...

Reunions in Ethiopia and Eritrea (in Photos)  Pacific Standard

Since the countries' leaders signed a peace agreement on July 9th, Ethiopia and Eritrea have withdrawn troops and re-opened travel.

Pacific Standard
Why Eritrea is called Africa’s North Korea  The Economist

ERITREA has had some unhappy claims to fame over the years. Its war of liberation from neighbouring Ethiopia, which began in the 1960s and only ended in ...

The Economist
The Bicycle Horn of Africa: How cycling became a part of Eritrea's national identity  The Globe and Mail

History and colonialism brought the sport to this African country, but geography, climate and culture helped Eritreans to embrace and excel at it – and now its ...

The Globe and Mail
No choice: Migrants kidnapped for ransom  InfoMigrants

'Travel now, pay later' schemes offered by smugglers seem to be increasing the risks to migrants and refugees, especially in parts of Africa. One of the dangers ...

With border open, Ethiopia and Eritrea are back in business  Mail and Guardian

For two decades, little besides soldiers, refugees and rebels moved across Ethiopia and Eritrea's closed border, but today the once-barren no man's land teems ...

Mail and Guardian
27 000 Eritreans 'seeking refugee status' in Ethiopia  News24

More than 27 500 Eritreans have filed for refugee status in Ethiopia since the two countries reopened their joint border in September, according to EU ...

Business hopes and refugee woes after Eritrea-Ethiopia peace deal  Al Jazeera English

Eritrean and Ethiopian traders hope to profit from peace but thousands of Eritreans flee seeking safety and stability.

Al Jazeera English
Change of Her Majesty's Ambassador to Eritrea in February 2019  GOV.UK

Mr Alisdair Walker has been appointed Her Majesty's Ambassador to the State of Eritrea in succession to Mr Ian Richards. Mr Walker will take up his ...

Despite the peace deal with Ethiopia, Eritrean refugees are still afraid to return home  PRI

Samuel Berhe, like many other Eritreans, fled the country some years ago to escape mandatory national *service*, which the government made indefinite ...

Eritrea: Human rights central to brighter future, says expert - Eritrea  ReliefWeb

English News and Press Release on Eritrea about Protection and Human Rights and Refugees; published on 24 Oct 2018 by UN HRC.

Troops on Border Mark Next Issue for Ethiopia-Eritrea Peace  VOA News

Ethiopia and Eritrea have taken major steps toward peace in the past month, resuming flights, reopening telephone links, and allowing families to meet after ...

VOA News
Ethiopia offers Eritrea chance to end Africa's longest war  BBC News

Ethiopia's surprise announcement that it will abide by a 2002 border ruling raises the prospect of a final end to what was Africa's deadliest border war and peace ...

BBC News
UN to lift sanctions on Eritrea after US shift  News24

The UN Security Council is preparing to lift sanctions on Eritrea after the United States dropped its insistence on prolonging the measures despite a peace deal ...

Eritrea delegation arrives in Ethiopia ahead of landmark talks  Aljazeera.com

High-level Eritrean delegation arrives in Ethiopia for talks on ending decades-old conflict between the two countries.

Eritrea breaks silence and responds to Ethiopia peace overtures, will send delegation  The Washington Post

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — Two weeks after the Ethiopian government made the surprise announcement that it was ready to accept a nearly 20-year-old peace ...

The Washington Post
Eritrean Fighter Pilot, Escapee, Calls for Justice for Jailed Compatriots  VOA News

Dejen Ande Hishel spent 15 years in prison before escaping; now, he's calling for justice for those still behind bars.

VOA News
With Ethiopia's border now open, why are Eritreans still fleeing to Sudan?  African Arguments

Despite huge regional shifts, Eritreans continue to flee through Sudan, aided by resilient and flexible people-smuggling networks. Smuggling networks in east ...

African Arguments
Opinion: Why I'm staging 17 minutes of silent protest for Eritrea  CNN

It was one week after 9/11, and the world's attention was on New York City. The terrorist attack had changed the world forever, but in a small country in the Horn ...

Djibouti, Eritrea agree to normalize ties strained since 2008  Reuters

ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Eritrea and Djibouti have agreed to normalize ties a decade after a border dispute led to brief military clashes, officials said on ...

Unresolved Eritrea-Djibouti Tensions Threaten Regional Peace  VOA News

Regional integration could threaten Djibouti's economy and political stability, making it a potential spoiler in Eritrea's quest for regional rapprochement.

VOA News
Eritrea at UN demands compensation for sanctions  News24

Eritrea's foreign minister has called for sanctions against his country to be lifted as a result of the peace deal with Ethiopia and demanded compensation for the ...

Ethiopia and Eritrea Need Their Peace  The Nation.

Ethiopia and Eritrea began a spectacular rapprochement this summer, and stability in the Horn of Africa depends on its lasting.

The Nation.
Here's why Uganda, Zimbabwe, Eritrea are 'cool places' to visit in 2019  africanews

Zimbabwe, Eritrea, Uganda and South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province are the African destinations named in National Geographic Traveler's 'Cool list' for 2019.

Ethiopia reopens embassy in Eritrea amid thaw in ties  Al Jazeera English

Ethiopia has reopened its embassy in Eritrea after a 20-year hiatus, in a further sign of improving relations between the neighbours who signed a peace accord ...

Al Jazeera English
2018 Review: Eritrea's year of significant peace with neighbours  africanews

So much has changed since one peace deal was signed – the July 9, 2018 peace and cooperation deal between Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and ...

‘They’re Going to Come for Us’: A Teenage Girl Caught in a War’s Riptides  The New York Times

My father knew we were next. “They're going to come for us,” he'd say, after Meles Zenawi, then the prime minister of Ethiopia, told the country on national ...

The New York Times

Eritrea Videos

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#Eritrea I The role of Isayas Afwerki I Interview with Yemane Teklegergish I ቃለማሕተ ምስ ኣቶ ተኽለገርጊሽ I
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BoBa ft. Joss Stone - Eritrea
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New Eritrean Comedy 2019 - ወይለይ
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Geography Now! Eritrea
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Blackout Ep. 4: Leaks from Eritrea, Africa's North Korea
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Looking Deeper into Effects of Eritrea's Brutal Dictatorship
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Eritrea: The North Korea of Africa

Eritrea Images

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Adi Keyh - Wikipedia
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Nuova pagina 1
Eritrea 5 Nakfa 1997 Banknote
Eritrea 5 Nakfa 1997 Banknote
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Untitled Document [users.telenet.be]
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Sheebah Karungi Photo (1825) - Howwe.biz
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Somali wild dog - Wikipedia
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Fotografie Eritrea anni 1930/194
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Segunda guerra ítalo-etíope - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
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Golfo de Tadjoura - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
RAOnline EDU Geografie: Länderstatistiken - Zentral- und ...
RAOnline EDU Geografie: Länderstatistiken - Zentral- und ...

Eritrea WebSites


Eritrea Wiki

Eritrea (; (listen)), officially the State of Eritrea is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD. It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien.The creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates (for example, Medri Bahri and the Sultanate of Aussa) eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea. But the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition. In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory.Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world. The Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid. Because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was also ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea.The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela, India and Turkey.