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Finland NEWS

NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Fri, 15 Feb 2019 04:27:59 GMTGoogle News
In the N.H.L., Finland Is Now Here, There and Everywhere  The New York Times

A country of 5.5 million people is providing the league with a golden generation of young players, including Mikko Rantanen and Patrik Laine.

The New York Times
Eastern Finland's population in rapid decline  YLE News

Eastern Finland's declining population numbers poses a threat to welfare services in the region, according to a local official.

YLE News
Less snow cover, shorter winters in Finland since 1960s  YLE News

Snow cover averages across many areas of Finland have decreased between the years of 1961-2014, according to a study carried out by researchers at the ...

YLE News
Yle News explains "penkkarit": Why costumed teens in Finland toss sweets from lorries  YLE News

New to Finland and puzzled about the sight of truckloads of young people gussied up in sometimes outrageous costumes throwing sweets at passers-by?

YLE News
Officials eye dog show rehearsal over new measles case in southern Finland  YLE News

Individuals exposed to the infection may include participants at a dog show rehearsal in Järvenpää.

YLE News
Finnish Volunteers ‘Very Likely’ Participated in Killing of Jews in World War II  The New York Times

A report commissioned by Finland's government found that volunteers in Nazi Germany's Waffen-SS “very likely took part in the killing of Jews, other civilians ...

The New York Times
Finland's 4Q GDP Growth Accelerates, Flash Estimate Shows  Bloomberg

Finland's economic growth accelerated to 0.9 percent in the final quarter of last year from the prior three-month period, flash estimate data by Statistics Finland ...

Finland’s basic-income trial did not much affect work incentives  The Economist

AMONG THE adherents of universal basic income (UBI) are the Italian government, India's opposition party and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a Democratic ...

The Economist
Shipping strike possible on March 1 in Finland: report - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

HELSINKI, Feb. 14 (Xinhua) -- The Finnish Seafarers' Union is planning to launch labor action on March 1 that will be affecting all commercial shipping under ...

Supreme Administrative Court rules Finland should grant asylum to Turkish Kurd  YLE News

Finland's Supreme Administrative Court has overturned a decision by the Finnish Immigration *Service*, Migri, to reject the asylum application of a Kurdish man ...

YLE News
Finland, Estonia and Latvia sign deal for single gas tariff zone  Reuters

Gas transmission operators of Finland, Latvia and Estonia signed an agreement on Thursday to set up a single gas transmission tariff zone for the three ...

"I'm broken, depressed": Foreigners struggle to find work in Finland  YLE News

Yle News' All Points North podcast recently tackled the issue of why many migrants face difficulty breaking into the Finnish job market. Contributors came ...

YLE News
In Finland, giving people free money boosted happiness, not employment  Vox.com

Preliminary results are in for Finland's landmark experiment with basic income — the idea that the government should give citizens a regular infusion of free ...

Yle Areena tops Finland's most valued internet brand list  YLE News

In a new survey, Yle Areena has been voted Finland's top internet brand, beating out entertainment giants such as Netflix.

YLE News
Tampere looking to roll out Finland's first skateboarding school  YLE News

The 2020 Olympics in Tokyo will mark the first time that skateboarding is included as an official sport.

YLE News
Finland's early years curriculum grows across the globe  Nursery World

Helsinki International (HEI) Schools, a licensing model that teaches early years professionals to implement Finland's educational ideology and curriculum, has ...

Nursery World
Finland Gift Cards and Incentive Cards Market Size & Forecast (2014-2023): Analysis on Business & Retail Consumer Spending Pattern, Attitude and Behaviour - ResearchAndMarkets.com  Business Wire

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Finland Gift Cards and Incentive Cards Market Intelligence and Future Growth Dynamics - Market Size and Forecast ...

Business Wire
Religious Liberty Seminar in Finland Helps Church to Gain Visibility  Adventist Review

Ganoune Diop, director of Public Affairs and Religious Liberty for the Seventh-day Adventist Church, presented the opening session of a seminar on religious ...

Adventist Review
More than 400000 people in Finland take anti-depressants  YLE News

More than 400,000 people per year in Finland receive compensation from the Social Insurance Institution (Kela) for anti-depressant medications. Some 50-70 ...

YLE News
Pedestrian bridges of the wooden composite will be built in Russia and Finland  EurekAlert

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) in a consortium with a strategic partner LUT University (Finland) and the industrial partner ...

How to build a countrywide AI strategy? Finland is turning its seniors into evangelists.  PRI

The mentorship program is just one component of Finland's national AI strategy, which focuses heavily on getting Finns without a technical or computer science ...

Free Money Experiment Is Set to Reveal First Results in Finland  Bloomberg

The world's happiest country is about to answer a question that's intrigued political philosophers and economists for centuries: What happens when citizens are ...

Finland's Thirdpresence acquires video platform Flowplayer  Tech.eu

Finnish programmatic video advertising company Thirdpresence has acquired video platform Flowplayer. Together, the companies plan to develop a contextual ...

UK, Finland dissent led to withdrawal of PFHxA SVHC proposal  Chemical Watch

Germany's withdrawal of its proposal to name PFHxA and its ammonium salt an SVHC last December, came after dissent from the UK and Finland, minutes from ...

Chemical Watch
Finland Gave People $640 A Month, No Strings Attached. Here’s What Happened.  HuffPost

The world's most prominent trial of universal basic income has ended -- and the first results are in.

Finland to heavily subsidise "revolutionary," expensive migraine drug  YLE News

The cost of the recently-approved preventative migraine drug Aimovig will be heavily subsidised in Finland, according to a decision reached on Thursday by the ...

YLE News
Finland's latest odd sporting event: Ice fishing World Championships  YLE News

Fishing through a hole in the ice joins the list of unusual competitions that include the world championships of swamp soccer, wife carrying and kick sledding.

YLE News
Ice swimming embraced by people of happiest country in the world  CNN

Finland ranks as the happiest country in the world. Could swimming in icy water -- and the mental and physical health benefits associated with such a practice ...

Did Finland's basic income experiment work?  BBC News

Finland has just completed a major basic income experiment where 2,000 unemployed people were given €560 (£490) a month for two years, instead of their ...

BBC News
The Norse Awakens: Inside Finland's Booming Locations Sector  Hollywood Reporter

State-of-the-art facilities, experienced (and inexpensive) crews and a new tax incentive aimed at high-end television and film productions have transformed ...

Hollywood Reporter
Students in Finland offer a succinct lesson in commuting  Mother Nature Network

On a recent winter day in Oulu, FInland, the snow-covered lot outside Metsokangas Comprehensive School was lined with neat rows of bicycles, even though it ...

Mother Nature Network
Finland's Universal Basic Income Had a Surprise Effect on People's Beliefs  Inverse

Finland has completed a major trial into the effects of a basic income, UBI, and the preliminary results are positive. The findings, shared in the Helsinki-based ...

Finland's pulp industry showing record results | Yle Uutiset  YLE News

Global megatrends are expected to provide Finland's thriving pulp production sector with a buffer against future recessions.

YLE News
Parkinson's Disease & Gut Health Have Been Linked In This New Study From Finland  Bustle

Scientific breakthroughs are hurtling down the tracks a mile a minute, and the medical world is a real stand-out star in scientific realms. Huge strides are being ...

Trust in digital services fades in Finland | Yle Uutiset  YLE News

Recurrent leaks and misuse of personal data have spurred people in Finland to limit their use of digital services, says the think-tank Sitra.

YLE News
Meet Aurora: Finland's AI assistant aims to give each citizen tailored advice  ZDNet

People in Finland are being shown the public and private services that could benefit them most in an ambitious AI trial.

A Look at What Makes Finland the World's Happiest Country  Valley News

Forget the images of winter darkness, a backwoods culture and depressed citizens pickled in aquavit. Finland is green, progressive and currently ranked as the ...

Valley News
Soldiers of Odin Declare Hunt for Rapists, Paedophiles Amid Finland Sex Attacks  Sputnik International

The vigilantes' recent video, in which they claimed Finland to be overrun by "sex tourists" has arrived amidst a grooming gang scandal which has implicated ...

Sputnik International
Truck crash spills up to 7000 litres of milk in western Finland  YLE News

A milk truck slid off the motorway and crashed into a ditch on the Möykyntie road in the southern Ostrobothnian village of Päntäne on Thursday afternoon.

YLE News
Finland Set to Reveal Some Results of Its Universal Basic Income Experiment  Inverse

For two years, the Finnish social security agency — KELA — has been giving 2000 unemployed Fins 560 euro ($635.4) a month to test not only how much a ...

Yle News explains: How to vote from abroad in Finland's parliamentary elections  YLE News

Some 250000 expatriate Finns are eligible to vote in this year's parliamentary election, according to the Justice Ministry.

YLE News
PM: Brits in Finland should register with immigration services  YLE News

Prime Minister Juha Sipilä has called on UK citizens living and working in Finland to register with the Finnish Immigration *Service* if they have not already done ...

YLE News
Fitch maintains Finland's credit rating, lowers growth forecast  YLE News

One of the top three credit ratings in the world, Fitch Ratings, has affirmed its assessment of Finland's creditworthiness at AA+, the second-best rating possible, ...

YLE News
Why are these kids getting more recess? Because their superintendent went to Finland  Wichita Eagle

After one South Carolina school superintendent got to visit Finland and see how they run their education system, he decided there was definitely one thing he ...

Wichita Eagle
Finland's Free Money, Europe Stumbles, Fed Followers: Eco Day  Bloomberg

Welcome to the end of the week, Europe. Here's the latest news and analysis from Bloomberg Economics to help get your day started:

New Moms In Finland Get A Box Of Baby Products. But Their Origin Is Iffy : Goats and Soda  NPR

New parents love the Finnish baby box. It's sent by the government to moms-to-be and is full of tiny booties and socks, onesies and baby bibs. And the box itself ...

How Finland Solved Homelessness  HuffPost

With one ridiculously simple policy, it has almost completely eradicated street homelessness.

WATCH: Flowers and friendship – how Finns celebrate Valentine's Day  News Now Finland

Has the annual event become too commercial - do you like the emphasis on relationships or do you prefer the Finnish tradition of celebrating friendship?

News Now Finland
Flounders in the Gulf of Finland: Decline caused by the near disappearance of one species  Science Daily

Over the past 40 years, there has been a dramatic decline in fishery landings of an iconic Baltic Sea fish: the flounder. In the 1980s, the landings of the flounder ...

Science Daily
Finland's universal basic income test fails to boost employment  The Globe and Mail

Finland's "free money" trial failed to spur the unemployed to work more, researchers said on Friday (February 8) as the government announced initial findings.

The Globe and Mail
Safety hazards prompt authorities to close 'escape room' games  News Now Finland

Rescue Department officers went to inspect businesses in the capital city region, and found problems in a number of escape room scenarios.

News Now Finland
21 minutes of sunshine: Polar night ends in Finland's far north  YLE News

Residents of Nuorgam, Finland's northernmost town, celebrated and mourned the end of polar night, when the sun does not rise above the horizon.

YLE News
Finland to change law to recognise sex without consent as rape  The Independent

Finland is to tighten its laws to ensure sex without consent or with children is always punishable as rape. The government announced the proposed changes ...

The Independent
Few jaywalk in Finland, despite lack of enforcement  YLE News

Only around 100-150 jaywalking fines are issued to pedestrians, cyclists and moped riders in Finland annually.

YLE News
Finland's Foreign Ministry falls for €400K email scam  YLE News

Scammers are suspected of duping the Finnish Foreign Ministry into handing over some 400,000 euros in development funds last February, according to the ...

YLE News
Migrant Arrested in Finland in Connection With Rape of 2 Teen Girls - Reports  Sputnik International

A wave of sex crimes made headlines in Oulu late last year, with all of the suspected perpetrators being foreign-born men who had arrived in Finland either as ...

Sputnik International
Finland: First results of the BI experiment to be webstreamed: 8 Feb | BIEN  Basic Income News

Preliminary results of the basic income experiment, which Finish government implemented in 2017-2018, will be presented at Säätytalo, “House of the Estates” ...

Basic Income News
Decline in Finland's birth rate continues  YLE News

Fewer than 50000 children were born in Finland in 2018, bringing the national fertility rate to an all-time low.

YLE News
Free money wouldn’t make people lazy – but it could revolutionise work  The Guardian

Finland's experiment suggests a way out of our fixation with paid work, says policy and research consultant Anna Dent.

The Guardian
Finland's most expensive TV show: New Moominvalley series  YLE News

The new Moominvalley series is Finland's most expensive TV show -- with the English-language version featuring top British actors including Jennifer Saunders, ...

YLE News
Shiva Thapa selected for International Boxing Tournament, Finland  Guwahati Plus

Shiva Thapa, ace boxer from Guwahati, has been included in the Indian boxing team for the forthcoming 38th Gee Bee International Boxing Tournament at ...

Guwahati Plus
PICS: This Dublin Registered Car Was Used In A Robbery... In Finland  Lovin Dublin

Police in Finland were informed on January 24th about a burglary in Neste *Service* station in Ekenäs. The police published CCTV footage of the two men in ...

Lovin Dublin
Friday's papers: Finland's affinity for nuclear power, citizens' climate concerns and lawnmowers cut the ice  YLE News

Finland produces double the greenhouse gas emissions of Sweden, the electorate worries about climate change and lawnmowers cut the ice.

YLE News
Morning headlines: Thursday 14th February 2019  News Now Finland

Former pro-hockey player bids to be Finland's first NHL member of parliament. Former pro-hockey player Sean Bergenheim is planning to swap pucks for ...

News Now Finland
Storm to bring heavy snow, treacherous roads to southern Finland  YLE News

Southern Finland will receive at least 10cm of new snow by Thursday morning, predicts Yle meteorologist Joonas Koskela. He recommends allowing plenty of ...

YLE News
The Big Issue's Top 100 Changemakers 2019: Finland  Big Issue

Finland has long been held as the imprimatur for education and safety across the globe and is even believed to be the world's happiest country. So The Big ...

Big Issue
Montana professor to study how Finland reduced suicide rate  KULR-TV

BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) — A professor at Montana State University Billings will spend five months in Finland to study how the northern European country cut its ...

Finland treated to 'super blood wolf moon' | Yle Uutiset  YLE News

Skygazers in Finland delighted in a total lunar eclipse early Monday morning.

YLE News
Finland's winter swimmers chase endorphins  YLE News

With winter swimming becoming mainstream in Finland, some devotees seek feelgood endorphins with a daily plunge in icy cold water.

YLE News
How does Finland’s top-ranking education system work?  Big Think

Finland's entire education structure works around several core principles. First, equal access to education is a constitutional right. Another is that one should be ...

Big Think
Finland's free money experiment  Marketplace APM

Bread prices have reportedly jumped 70 percent overnight in Zimbabwe. We bring you the latest from a country still struggling after years of hyperinflation. Then ...

Marketplace APM
It's Darude for Finland this year!  Eurovision.tv

Finnish broadcasting company Yle has chosen EDM icon Darude to represent their country in the 2019 Eurovision Song Contest. His participating song will be ...

Finland, loose laces and dull blades: How Stars defenseman Miro Heiskanen developed into an elite skater  Dallas News

On a fall Thursday morning in Boise, Idaho, in the unblemished shine of a new season, the shadow of past failings and the promise of a new savior, Miro ...

Dallas News
Industry bids are in for Finland's $13 billion fighter race  DefenseNews.com

The usual suspects of the West's military aircraft world -- the Super Hornet, the F-35, the Rafale, the Eurofighter and the Gripen -- are in the running to replace the ...

The Ghost Restaurant Of Finland: Interview With Martti Paatela Of Epic Foods  Forbes

There are no waiters or seating, but you can order food from the Epic Foods ghost restaurant and have it brought to your door at home. Located in Helsinki ...

Needle discovered in supermarket produce in western Finland  YLE News

A case of serious vandalism has been detected in a supermarket on the western coast of Finland, after a customer found a sewing needle in clementines ...

YLE News
The city with no homeless on its streets  BBC News

The number of people sleeping rough in the UK has multiplied since 2010. But in Finland's capital Helsinki rough sleeping has been almost eradicated thanks to ...

BBC News
Waterford sign 21-year-old Finland goalkeeper on loan from Premier League Brighton  The42

WATERFORD HAVE SECURED the services of Finland U21 international goalkeeper Hugo Keto from Premier League outfit Brighton on loan until this summer.

Finland: receipt of the 5th cycle State Report  Council of Europe

Finland submitted its Fifth State Report on 1 February 2019, pursuant to Article 25, paragraph 2, of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National ...

Council of Europe
Monday's papers: Population bust, health care payoffs and a new millionaire  YLE News

Finland's booming areas not attracting people, health care profits and the biggest-ever lottery jackpot are among Monday's headlines.

YLE News
Finland Formula 1 race study under way at proposed MotoGP venue  autosport.com

A study is being undertaken to establish whether Finland could stage a Formula 1 race in the future, with the country's new MotoGP circuit a possible venue.

What happened when Finland scrapped benefits and just paid EVERYONE £490 a month  Mirror Online

Scotland is currently exploring the idea that would ultimately replace Universal Credit - but is a universal basic income the answer?

Mirror Online
Implementation key for regaining trust, Finland's PM tells EU lawmakers  EURACTIV

Democratic forces of Europe will win back the trust of the people by making decisions and by implementing them, at home and here in Brussels, Finland's Juha ...

Opinion: What Finnish schools can teach S.C. educators  Greenville News

Pickens County Schools Superintendent Dr. Danny Merck writes about what he learned on a tour of schools in Finland.

Greenville News
Finland Investigates Its Embassy in Turkey Over Alleged Visa Scam  SchengenVisaInfo.com

Three employees at the Finnish embassy in Ankara are suspected of having issued hundreds of visas illegally, over a longer period. The National Bureau of ...

Managing spent fuel in Canada, Finland and Sweden.  Lloyd's Register

For long-term management of spent nuclear fuel, Canada, Finland and Sweden have opted for the same multi-barrier concept.

Lloyd's Register
Finland Admits Its Volunteer SS Troops ‘Very Likely’ Involved in WWII Massacres  Sputnik International

HELSINKI (Sputnik) - The Finnish volunteer soldiers, who served in the Waffen-SS Wiking division during World War II, "very likely" participated in the mass ...

Sputnik International
Lapland, Enontekio: Finland town hits -20C, gets only 4 hours of sunlight in winter  NEWS.com.au

Streaks of pink and orange stain the grey canvas above, as if a watercolour artist has spilt a pot of peach. The fiery sunrise casts an eerie light across the snowy ...

Finland's Grooming Gangs  Gatestone Institute

Much of the coverage of the same problem in Great Britain said that Jay had accused the Rotherham council and police of failing to tackle sexual exploitation ...

Gatestone Institute
Finland Wants More Migrants to Leave, Doubles 'Sweetener' Aid  Sputnik International

Starting from January, asylum seekers leaving Finland can receive up to 5000 euros in cash or subsidies in what the Migration *Service* has dubbed the ...

Sputnik International
Tributes to Matti, bribes from Migri, and the problem with free money – Finland in the World Press  Helsinki Times

INTERNATIONAL HEADLINES WERE DOMINATED THIS WEEK with news of the passing of legendary Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, as much of the country ...

Helsinki Times
Report pushes 'location independence' for state employees | Yle Uutiset  YLE News

A new report suggests that Finland's regional development policies could shift away from relocation of major agencies towards allowing employees the right to ...

YLE News
Helsinki put the homeless into homes. Budapest banned them  Big Issue

What can we learn from a tale of two cities? Liam Geraghty investigates two radically different approaches to homelessness from Finland and Hungary.

Big Issue
Helsinki Council votes to cut meat and dairy use by 50% over six years  News Now Finland

There has been quite strong objections to the move from the right side of politics, with one ministerial aide likening it to "uncompromising Communism".

News Now Finland
Finland's basic income test fails to boost jobs  Reuters.com

Finland's government announced on Friday (February 8) the first findings from its basic income trial that ended a month ago, with researchers saying it had failed ...

Gasum: The World's First LNG-fueled Icebreaker Polaris Bunkered in Pori and Tornio, Finland  Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide

The world's first LNG-fueled icebreaker, Polaris, received liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel in January from the Pori LNG import terminal and in February from.

Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide
Matti Nykanen: Finland ski jumping great dies aged 55  BBC Sport

Finland ski jumping great and four-time Olympic gold medallist Matti Nykanen dies at the age of 55.

BBC Sport
Helsinki has a new subterranean museum and it’s as surreal as the city landscapes  Architectural Digest India

The opening of Amos Rex museum in Helsinki is one of the biggest events to occur in the cultural life of the city. Take a look at the surreal architecture.

Architectural Digest India
Finland has almost wiped out homelessness - now Manchester is going to try the same tactics  Manchester Evening News

Just under £8million has been allocated to create 400 homes for homeless people who have 'fallen through the gaps'.

Manchester Evening News
Are we measuring success in our societies the wrong way?  Stuff.co.nz

Finland's nationwide basic income experiment had mixed results but an unexpected side effect: Recipients appeared to be happier.


Finland Videos

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Finland Is The Best Country To Travel To In 2019
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DON'T MOVE TO FINLAND! - 8 Reasons Why Life in Finland is MISERABLE!
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Visit Finland - 10 Things That Will SHOCK You About Finland
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10+ Extraordinary Facts About Finland
Finland Doesn't Exist (Conspiracy Theory)
Finland Doesn't Exist (Conspiracy Theory)
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15 Things You Didn't Know About FINLAND
Geography Now! Finland
Geography Now! Finland
Finland गजब देश // Finland Amazing Country // Amazing Facts
Finland गजब देश // Finland Amazing Country // Amazing Facts

Finland Images

Koli | Koli National Park, Finland Shot with Canon EOS 5D ...
Koli | Koli National Park, Finland Shot with Canon EOS 5D ...
22.2.2016 Maanantaiaamu Mondaymorning Turku Åbo Finland ...
22.2.2016 Maanantaiaamu Mondaymorning Turku Åbo Finland ...
Europe Photography, the early years - Edinburgh Scotland ...
Europe Photography, the early years - Edinburgh Scotland ...
Aurora, Finland | Aurora in the far north west of Finland ...
Aurora, Finland | Aurora in the far north west of Finland ...
Tiibetinmastiffi Tiibetinspanieli DOUBLE EYE Suomi Finland
Tiibetinmastiffi Tiibetinspanieli DOUBLE EYE Suomi Finland
LITEXP TRIMARAN – Liteboat Row & Sail – A unique concept ...
LITEXP TRIMARAN – Liteboat Row & Sail – A unique concept ...
Juuso Hämäläinen (JuusoHD) Photos / 500px
Juuso Hämäläinen (JuusoHD) Photos / 500px
TSTOS 17 | 20.-23.7.2017
TSTOS 17 | 20.-23.7.2017

Finland WebSites


Finland Wiki

Finland (Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] (listen); Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪnland] (listen)), officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland (listen to all)) is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.Finland's population is 5.52 million (2018), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland-Swedes (5.3%). Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP.Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE. The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery.From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining their independence.Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialise. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, and second in the Global Gender Gap Report. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.