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NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Thu, 17 Jan 2019 05:01:31 GMTGoogle News
Italy and France are at loggerheads  The Economist

CESARE BATTISTI (pictured, centre), a former left-wing terrorist arrested in Bolivia after 38 years on the run, was returned to his native Italy on January 14th.

The Economist
What’s new in France for 2019  Seattle Times

New ticketing systems, apps, bus restaurants and more: French tourism has some shiny new updates for 2019. Here's how to make the most of them.

Seattle Times
Forgotten France Rises Up  The Nation.

France's Yellow Vests took just one month to challenge policies on taxation, education, transport, and environment—and make the Macron government back ...

The Nation.
France Abandons Ghosn, All But Ensuring Renault CEO's O...  Daily Maverick

French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire called for the dismissal of jailed Renault SA Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Carlos Ghosn, all but assuring the ...

Daily Maverick
How France's provocateur-in-chief became part of the establishment  New Statesman

Michel Houellebecq's seventh novel sold 90000 copies within the first three days of publication on 4 January. At the same time he was awarded the Légion ...

New Statesman
PREVIEW: WNT Opens 2019 vs. World Cup Hosts France | Saturday, Jan. 19 | 2:30 p.m. ET on FS1 & UDN  U.S. Soccer

The U.S. Women's National Team will kick off its World Cup year on Jan. 19 against 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup hosts and FIFA-ranked No. 3 France at ...

U.S. Soccer
Radio France Chooses AEQ Systel System for Martinique  Radio World

MADRID — Radio France is a French public radio *service* broadcaster founded in 1975. It currently offers six national networks: a regional network of 44 local ...

Radio World
France: Emmanuel Macron begins 'grand debate' tour  DW (English)

French President Emmanuel Macron met with about 600 mayors across the Normandy region on Tuesday in his first session of a two-month national debate tour ...

DW (English)
Why has France's birth rate dropped for a fourth year in a row?  The Local France

France's birth rate has dropped for the fourth year in a row, new statistics revealed on Tuesday, leaving a question hanging over how long the French can hold ...

The Local France
Encore! - Film show: Keira Knightley plays Colette in biopic of France's most famous female writer  FRANCE 24

From a gritty and glamorous biopic about the French author Colette to a retrospective of film critic Lisa Nesselson's favourite director Billy Wilder, Encore brings ...

Two local WWII veterans receive honors from France  KSBY San Luis Obispo News

World War II Veteran George L. Corrales Jr. and David B. Valenzuela, who has passed away, received the Legion of Honor medal from the country of France on ...

KSBY San Luis Obispo News
France orders $2.3 billion upgrade for Rafale warplanes  DefenseNews.com

Editor's note: The €2 billion (U.S. $2.3 billion) sum mentioned in this article is for the development of the F4 standard for Rafale aircraft. PARIS — The French ...

Bayer Faces New Setback for Roundup Weedkiller in France  The Wall Street Journal

BERLIN— Bayer AG's BAYRY -0.32% fight to prove its recently-acquired weedkillers are safe faced a setback in Europe Tuesday as a French court revoked ...

The Wall Street Journal
France's 'Yellow Vest' Protesters March Again  TIME

(PARIS) — Thousands of French yellow vest protesters marched through Paris on Saturday for a ninth straight weekend as others took to the streets in the ...

France Denies Buying Rafale Fighter Jets at a Price Cheaper Than India  Sputnik International

The controversy over the purchase of French Rafale fighter jets by the Indian government refuses to die down. A media report claiming that France purchased ...

Sputnik International
EU WARNING: How France ‘KNEW Germany would be dominant power’ at bloc’s inception  Express.co.uk

FRANCE was “concerned” that Germany would become the “dominant power” in the formative years of what is now the European Union, it has been revealed.

What I Saw at a Yellow Vest Protest in France  The American Conservative

ROUEN, FRANCE – A large plastic garbage can ignites with a whoosh in front of the Church of Saint Joan of Arc in Rouen, Normandy. The smell of acrid plastic ...

The American Conservative
France to cull wild boar at Belgium border in swine fever alert  Reuters

PARIS (Reuters) - France will cull all wild boar in a zone along the Belgian border to try and avoid an outbreak of a deadly swine disease after new cases were ...

Post-Daesh Iraq: France's engagement  France Diplomatie

In December 2017, Iraqi authorities announced that they had completely freed areas previously controlled by the Daesh terrorist organization. Today, Iraq has ...

France Diplomatie
First VP Mehriban Aliyeva meets France's former president Nicolas Sarkozy [PHOTO]  AzerNews

First Vice-President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Mehriban Aliyeva has met with former President of the French Republic Nicolas Sarkozy.

PM sends letter to France's Macron on palm oil ban  Malaysiakini

Malaysia has handed over a letter to France explaining its position on the French National Assembly's decision to declassify palm oil as biodiesel feedstock.

Suffering for Fashion in 18th-Century France  L.A. Weekly

Artist-at-Work: French Fashion is Maxwell Barr's salon, in which he'll dress a live model and unveil the daily undertaking required to assemble ensembles the ...

L.A. Weekly
Jane Birkin, 1960s Icon, to Get Honor at France's Lumiere Awards  Hollywood Reporter

The legendary actress and singer will be honored at the ceremony Feb. 4, while Oscar-winner Claude Lelouch will unveil first images from his follow-up to 'A ...

Hollywood Reporter
World War 3: Iran blasts meddling France over missiles programme ‘it’s our national right!  Express.co.uk

Iran said it was their “natural right” to develop a defensive missile programme, after France told them to “immediately” stop all activities linked to ballistic missiles ...

Wine in France: The Tiny Appellation of Coteaux de Pierrevert  FranceToday.com

Despite hailing from Provence, Pierrevert wines fall under the Rhône umbrella – and no one knows why.

Gue(ho)st House – Delme, France  Atlas Obscura

Discover Gue(ho)st House in Delme, France: This building's ghostly exterior reflects its former lives as a prison, school, and funeral home.

Atlas Obscura
Graffiti From British Soldiers on D-Day Found in France  Good News Network

Graffiti and drawings left by British soldiers on the walls of a barn in France just after the Normandy landings on D-Day. (Photos)

Good News Network
Real Madrid news: France boss Deschamps still hasn't forgiven Benezma  Goal.com

Didier Deschamps has indicated he is not yet ready to forgive Karim Benzema for comments made about the France coach, saying the Real Madrid forward had ...

France at UN threatens more sanctions on Mali  Manila Bulletin

France on Wednesday threatened to push for more targeted sanctions to be imposed on Mali after hearing a UN official report on worsening violence in the West ...

Manila Bulletin
France, Japan Look to Increase Indo-Pacific Maritime Cooperation  The Diplomat

France and Japan are looking to hold bilateral military exercises in the Indo-Pacific.

The Diplomat
The Question for France: Where Do the Yellow Vests Go From Here?  The New York Times

Political groups are jockeying to capture the energy of the protest movement. But whether it can be given a more coherent shape remains uncertain.

The New York Times
New Zealand prop Ben Tameifuna banned for four weeks in France for dangerous tackle  Stuff.co.nz

New Zealand rugby player Ben Tameifuna has been banned for four weeks in France after being found guilty of a dangerous tackle in the Top 14 championship.

Massive collection of rare cars found in France to be auctioned  Driving

This barn-full of decrepit classic cars contains one of the rarest of them all.

D-Day veteran from Aspley awarded France's highest honour  Nottinghamshire Live

'I'll treasure this, not just for me but for those who didn't make it back'

Nottinghamshire Live
France says EU would be wrong to block Siemens-Alstom deal  Reuters

The European Commission would be making a mistake if it blocks the merger between Siemens's rail business and France's Alstom, France's government's ...

Meet the cast of France's biggest musical, Notre Dame de Paris  LondonTheatre.co.uk

A little over twenty years ago, Luc Plamondon and Riccardo Cocciante's musical Notre Dame de Paris, an adaptation of Victor Hugo's classic novel, opened and ...

Queer Eye's Antoni Porowski, Bobby Berk and Tan France pay homage to Britney Spears  Daily Mail

While Porowski opted to perform as a flight attendant from Spears' Toxic video, France wore a ring leader outfit from Circus and Berk wore red latex for an ode to ...

Daily Mail
Cardinal on Trial in France's Biggest Church Sex Abuse Case  TIME

(LYON, France) — A Catholic cardinal and five others are going on trial in France accused of covering up for a pedophile priest who abused Boy Scouts.

An authentic taste of France on the western shores of the Atlantic  CBS News

The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are a French territory off the coast of Canada that proudly heralds its Gallic roots.

CBS News
Yellow vests: France to crack down on unsanctioned protests  BBC News

French Prime Minister Edouard Philippe has announced plans to punish people who hold unsanctioned protests after seven weeks of anti-government unrest.

BBC News
Germany's AfD backs away from Dexit call as France's Le Pen pledges to reform EU from within  The Telegraph

The nationalist Alternative for Germany party (AfD) has backed away from plans to call for a German withdrawal from the European Union.

The Telegraph
Yellow Vest Leader Is Arrested in France Amid Crackdown  The New York Times

PARIS — The French police have arrested a prominent leader of the Yellow Vest movement for a second time, in a clear sign that the government is following ...

The New York Times
France's Macron Gambles on Public Debate to Restore National Calm Amid Yellow Vest Protests  TIME

After violent protests across France, President Emmanuel Macron is counting on a public debate to keep his presidency on track.

France’s Yellow Vests Reveal a Crisis of Mobility in All Its Forms  The New York Times

Mobility is the story of globalization and its inequities. But it is more than trains and automobiles: It includes social and economic movement, too.

The New York Times
'They tell nothing but lies': France's 'yellow vests' reveal their hatred of the media  The Local France

The weekend's 'yellow vest' protests saw more violent attacks and abuse targeting French journalists and some even blocked newspapers from being ...

The Local France
clement blanchet X AREP propose light and plants as main components of france pavilion at expo 2020 dubai  Designboom

clément blanchet architecture and etienne tricaud (AREP) reveal their shortlisted design proposal for the france pavilion at expo 2020 dubai.

Spain: Port of Almeria preparing fruit and veg shipping line to France  FreshPlaza.com

FreshPlaza is the number one portal for the *fresh* produce industry, offering the latest news, job advertisements, pricewatching, and photo reports.

A1 stats propel Team USA into 2019  FIFA.com

As FIFA Women's World Cup holders USA get set to begin their 2019 campaign against France in a friendly, FIFA.com spotlights the marvellous milestones they ...

France's yellow vest protesters demonstrate outside leading broadcasters  CBS News

Paris -- Yellow vest protesters marched on the headquarters of leading French broadcasters Saturday, as small groups turned out in Paris and around France ...

CBS News
UK and France to step up patrols as boat with 12 Iranians lands in Kent  The Guardian

The home secretary, Sajid Javid, and his French counterpart have pledged to step up joint efforts to tackle cross-Channel people smuggling, as Labour accused ...

The Guardian
Orange to launch home surveillance play in France  Mobile World Live

Orange pushed its multi-*service* operator strategy after striking a deal with insurance player Groupama to create Protectline, a new home surveillance company ...

Mobile World Live
Victory over France can propel Wales to Six Nations glory, says Gatland  The Guardian

Warren Gatland says victory in Paris in their opening match next month could give Wales the momentum they need to become Six Nations champions for the first ...

The Guardian
France, Sarkozy 'wasted' 8 years of Gbagbo's life – Rawlings  GhanaWeb

Ghana's former president Jerry John Rawlings has hailed the acquittal of ex- Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo by the International Criminal Court, describing ...

A taste of France comes to downtown Dundas  TheSpec.com

It's been an evolution of sorts into the new French Revolution.

France's Macron vows to 'do better' amid 'yellow vest' protests  Aljazeera.com

New Year's Eve speech comes at end of torrid period for Macron after six weeks of anti-government demonstrations.

Update: France launches F4 upgrade for Rafale  IHS Jane's 360

France has formally launched the development of the F4-standard for the Dassault Rafale combat aircraft, the manufacturer announced on 14 January.

IHS Jane's 360
Salvini to Macron: 'Stop Letting Terrorists Freely Drink Champagne in France'  Sputnik International

Italian Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, known for his hardline anti-migration stance, was previously involved in a war of words with French President Emmanuel ...

Sputnik International
France’s Yellow Vests Confront Macron With a New Reality  The New York Times

PARIS — Emmanuel Macron's presidency was battling a crisis less than two weeks ago, blindsided by the gathering strength and fury of the “Yellow Vests” ...

The New York Times
France's 'yellow vest' protests could shake up euro zone bond markets  Reuters

LONDON (Reuters) - France's response to “yellow vest” protests could be a turning point for euro zone bond markets if it kicks off an era of increased public ...

Gatland thinks France clash is the key to winning the Six Nations  ITV News

Warren Gatland believes that Wales' Guinness Six Nations opener against France is potentially their toughest assignment of this season's tournament.

ITV News
The Miseducation of France's President Emmanuel Macron  Bloomberg

Emmanuel Macron appears to be growing up in public. Eleven days before his 41st birthday, France's president—looking uncharacteristically haggard—made a ...

Japan’s Olympics Chief Faces Corruption Charges in France  The New York Times

LONDON — The president of Japan's Olympic Committee has been indicted on corruption charges in France after an investigation into the bidding process that ...

The New York Times
Thorin's Take: kennyS and shox - France's False Bill of Goods  VPEsports

Richard “shox” Papillon and Kenny “kennyS” Schrub are France's two greatest CS:GO players in history, yet they have not successfully sychronised their efforts ...

World War I German submarine unearthed in Northern France  Fox News

More than a century after it sunk into the sands of a Northern France beach, a German submarine from World War I has been unearthed. The UC-16 ran aground ...

Fox News
What France's 'Yellow Vest' Protests Can Teach California  CityLab

A lesson from Paris: Policies that reduce climate emissions at the expense of the economically disadvantaged are unsustainable.

Monaco frustrated as Wenger boys draw in Ligue 1  SuperSport

Thierry Henry's Monaco stretched their winless run in Ligue 1 to four games as they drew 1-1 with Patrick Vieira's Nice on Wednesday as the two former Arsenal ...

Researchers Question The Identity Of France's Oldest Person  NPR

Researchers suggest Jeanne Calment may not have been 122 years old when she died in 1997. Instead, they hypothesize it was her 99-year-old daughter who ...

France hoping British politicians will approve Brexit deal  Yahoo News

France is hoping that members of Britain's parliament will approve Prime Minister Theresa May's Brexit deal, an official at President Macron's Elysee department ...

Yahoo News
France condemns failed Iran satellite launch, urges halt to ballistics tests  Reuters

PARIS (Reuters) - France on Wednesday condemned a failed Iranian satellite launch that it said used technology applicable to long-range missiles and urged ...

Spain To Pit Its Eurofighters Against France's Stealth Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle  The Drive

Spanish Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon fighter jets and supporting personnel recently arrived in France to take part in evaluating the stealthy qualities of the ...

The Drive
Kenya – Nairobi attack (15.01.19) - France-Diplomatie - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères  France Diplomatie

France strongly condemns yesterday's attack in Nairobi, for which the al-Qaeda-backed al-Shabab terrorist group claimed responsibility and which took the lives ...

France Diplomatie
France Rejects America—and Empowers Germany!  theTrumpet.com

One day soon the French will come to realize that they are making the greatest mistake in their nation's history.

France’s Stade Rennais named as Nouhou’s suitor  Sounder At Heart

Not yet clear if there are actually offers on the table.

Sounder At Heart
EU NIGHTMARE: France's yellow vest revolt against Macron will cause huge headache in 2019  Express.co.uk

FRANCE is considered a bastion of stability amongst European Union countries but Emmanuel Macron is scrambling to quell a growing revolt against his ...

France's Vinci in $3.7 billion swoop on UK's Gatwick airport  Reuters

France's Vinci is taking advantage of a Brexit hit to UK asset prices to buy a majority stake in Britain's second-busiest airport, London's Gatwick, for 2.9 billion ...

How France redistributes more from rich to poor than Sweden  The Economist

WHEN EMMANUEL MACRON launches his promised “great national debate” on January 15th, he hopes to show a willingness to listen to the popular rage ...

The Economist
Opinion: To Understand France's Crisis, You Must First Understand Its Cheese  BuzzFeed News

The crisis in France is a byproduct of thousand-year old rivalries in an ancient and fragmented land, writes a leading Arab expert on WENA affairs.

BuzzFeed News
Malaki Fekitoa sidelined for six weeks in France  Stuff.co.nz

Toulon will be without ex-All Black and French midfield star.

France's Largest Bank BNP Paribas Loses $80 Million Due to Trader's Pre-Vacation Snafu  CCN

According to multiple sources, BNP SA, known by many as the largest bank in France, reportedly made a loss of $80 million in derivative trades connected to the ...

France's Yellow Vests: A Test for the Populist Left  Dissent

Ever since the gilets jaunes protests in France began in November, dealing a crippling blow to Emmanuel Macron's presidency, the response from the global left ...

‘Yellow Vest’ Protests Shake France. Here’s the Lesson for Climate Change.  The New York Times

PARIS — Vincent Picard describes himself as a “militant ecologist.” But when protesters took to the streets to express their rage over a planned increase in ...

The New York Times
Tear Gas Still Lingering, France’s President Will Address the Nation  The New York Times

PARIS — With the smell of tear gas and smoke still lingering in Paris and other cities after a fourth weekend of protests, France's president planned a nationwide ...

The New York Times
Macron, Confronting Yellow Vest Protests in France, Promises Relief  The New York Times

In his most substantive public remarks on the demonstrations that have roiled France, President Emmanuel Macron promised steps to address them.

The New York Times
France protests: PM Philippe suspends fuel tax rises  BBC News

Fuel tax rises which have led to weeks of violent protests in France have now been postponed for six months. The move was announced in a televised address ...

BBC News
Thousands in France protesting gas taxes and President Macron  Vox.com

Thousands of protesters in Paris and elsewhere in France demonstrate against rising fuel prices and Macron's economic policies.

France fuel protest: One dead in 'yellow vest' blockades  BBC News

One protester has died and more than 200 were injured as more than a quarter of a million people took to the streets of France, angry at rising fuel prices.

BBC News
In France, School Lessons Ask: Which Twitter Post Should You Trust?  The New York Times

To combat online misinformation and radicalization, one of the world's largest national internet literacy efforts is teaching students how to spot junk information.

The New York Times
These 5 Numbers Explain Why the French Are in the Streets  The New York Times

The “Yellow Vest” movement has morphed into an outcry over problems that have plagued France for years: declining living standards and eroding purchasing ...

The New York Times
Macron Returns to Turmoil, as France Weighs State of Emergency  The New York Times

PARIS — President Emmanuel Macron returned to France on Sunday from a summit meeting in Argentina to find his country in turmoil after a day of violent ...

The New York Times
France 'yellow vest' protesters defy government to gather  BBC News

"Yellow vest" protesters have gathered in Paris and other cities for a fifth consecutive Saturday of demonstrations. Protesters defied a government call to ...

BBC News
France’s anti-Macron riots in 17 pictures  Vox.com

Riots in Paris and elsewhere in France have turned deadly over a gas tax, economic reforms, and Macron.

Italy is no longer Europe's problem child as France's protest crisis grows  CNBC

Italy was firmly in the spotlight — and on Europe's naughty step — until recent weeks for its budget-busting spending plans but civil unrest in France is now ...

Macron’s crisis in France is a danger to all of Europe  The Guardian

Extremists are rejoicing over the president's predicament, says Guardian columnist Natalie Nougayrède.

The Guardian
France’s “yellow vests” protests against Macron turning deadlier  Vox

Anti-Macron protests in Parts and others parts of France over a gas tax and economic reforms have turned deadlier.

Paris protest: ‘People are in the red. They can’t afford to eat’  The Guardian

People from across France came to the capital to let the president know how they feel about the new tariffs.

The Guardian
Museums in France Should Return African Treasures, Report Says  The New York Times

Two academics, in a study commissioned by President Emmanuel Macron, recommended a process for repatriating artifacts if countries asked for them.

The New York Times
France Suspends Fuel Tax Increase That Spurred Violent Protests  The New York Times

PARIS — Trying to quell its most serious political crisis, the government of President Emmanuel Macron announced on Tuesday that it would suspend the ...

The New York Times
France fuel protests: 80-year-old woman killed in Marseille  BBC News

An 80-year-old woman has died after being hit by a tear gas canister at her window during Saturday's fuel protests in the French city of Marseille. The woman ...

BBC News
Will EU treat Italy more leniently as France’s Macron risks breaching fiscal rules?  MarketWatch

Some investors and politicians wonder if the European Union will ease pressure on Italy over its deficit-busting budget as France risks breaching the EU's fiscal ...


France Videos

Who Are France's Yellow Vest Protesters? (Les Gilets Jaunes)? | NowThis World
Who Are France's Yellow Vest Protesters? (Les Gilets Jaunes)? | NowThis World
Les courses élites du championnat de France de cyclo-cross de Besançon
Les courses élites du championnat de France de cyclo-cross de Besançon
France's Le Pen appeals to 'yellow vest' protesters for Europe election
France's Le Pen appeals to 'yellow vest' protesters for Europe election
فرانس 24 البث المباشر – الأخبار الدولية على مدار الساعة
فرانس 24 البث المباشر – الأخبار الدولية على مدار الساعة
\"More Than 100,000\" Yellow Vests Protest in France #GiletsJaunes #ActeIX
France to deploy 80,000 police as yellow vest protests continue | ITV News
France to deploy 80,000 police as yellow vest protests continue | ITV News
Violent yellow vest clashes in France for ninth straight week | ITV News
Violent yellow vest clashes in France for ninth straight week | ITV News
New round of ‘yellow vest’ protests erupts across France
New round of ‘yellow vest’ protests erupts across France
Island-Hopping: A bit of France closer to home
Island-Hopping: A bit of France closer to home

France Images

Uzès - France - Gard | THANKS to ALL ####### EXPLORE ...
Uzès - France - Gard | THANKS to ALL ####### EXPLORE ...
The Seine | Grande Roue,Pont de la Concorde, Paris, FRANCE ...
The Seine | Grande Roue,Pont de la Concorde, Paris, FRANCE ...
Les Cabannes is a commune in the Ariège department in ...
Les Cabannes is a commune in the Ariège department in ...
La Châtre
La Châtre
Valmorel plan des pistes de ski de fond - Alpski.com
Valmorel plan des pistes de ski de fond - Alpski.com
Amiens - Tramway
Amiens - Tramway
Le Creusot - France - Schneider - Gnalogie
Le Creusot - France - Schneider - Gnalogie
site officiel minibaja SAE france europe isat Nevers2009
site officiel minibaja SAE france europe isat Nevers2009

France WebSites


France Wiki

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018). France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 1190 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, and saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.