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Kazakhstan NEWS

NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Wed, 13 Feb 2019 18:07:22 GMTGoogle News
Kazakhstan's new AIX exchange outflanked by resurgent rival  Nikkei Asian Review

ALMATY, Kazakhstan -- Six months on from the launch of the Astana International Financial Centre, Kazakhstan's attempts to open up its capital markets.

Nikkei Asian Review
Activist For Kazakhs In Xinjiang On Trial In Almaty  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

The leader of a group in Almaty that has raised concerns over problems faced by ethnic Kazakhs in China's Xinjiang region is on trial.

Dozens Of Mothers Protest In Kazakhstan Demanding Government Support  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

ALMATY, Kazakhstan -- Dozens of Kazakh mothers are holding a meeting with local officials inside city hall in Almaty amid country-wide protests sparked by the ...

Year of Youth harnesses one of Kazakhstan's most valuable assets  Astana Times

Kazakhstan, as we are all aware, has been blessed with an abundance of natural resources under our soil and seas. The growth of our economy and the ...

Astana Times
Tragic Fire In Astana Gives Kazakh Mothers' Protests New Momentum  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

The tragic deaths of five sisters in a nighttime fire in the Kazakh capital earlier this month has given new impetus to protests over welfare benefits for large ...

WW3 preparation: Soviet Union's TOP SECRET nuclear test in EXPOSED by former worker  Express.co.uk

THE Soviet Union ran a series of top-secret nuclear weapons tests in an area known as “The Polygon” in northeast Kazakhstan during the Cold War, a former ...

Israel and Kazakhstan have close ties in education, medicine, agriculture and technology, says envoy  Astana Times

ASTANA – Israel and Kazakhstan have been developing close ties in different spheres and on various levels, exchanging experience and knowledge in ...

Astana Times
Russia and Kazakhstan step closer to Iran on wheat trade  IEG Vu

Russia, Kazakhstan and Iran have signed a Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in the wheat trade, a step towards enabling Russian and Kazakh ...

Vitol plans liquefied petroleum gas foray in Kazakhstan - sources  Reuters

Vitol, the world's top oil trader, plans to access liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from the giant Kashagan field in Kazakhstan and may finance the construction of a ...

Former vice minister becomes member of Kazakhstan Parliament  http://www.inform.kz/sitemap_en.xml

ASTANA. KAZINFORM - Nurzhan Altayev, a former Vice Minister of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan, became a deputy of the Majilis of ...

Kazakhstan weather forecast for February 13  http://www.inform.kz/sitemap_en.xml

ASTANA. KAZINFORM - On Wednesday, the passage of atmospheric fronts will cause snowfall in some parts of Kazakhstan. The western, northwestern ...

Kazakhstan and Hungary to hold business forum in Budapest  Times of Central Asia

ASTANA (TCA) — A Kazakh-Hungarian business forum will be held on March 5-6 in Budapest to discuss the implementation of specific investment projects in ...

Times of Central Asia
Investments in fixed assets in Kazakhstan decrease Economy 13:58  Trend News Agency

Baku, Azerbaijan, Feb. 13. By Rashid Shirinov – Trend: In Kazakhstan, total investments in fixed assets in January 2019 amounted to 644.5 billion tenge, which ...

Trend News Agency
Kazakhstan delays listing of state oil firm as UK IPO market stalls  The Business Times

London. KAZAKHSTAN has deferred an initial public offering (IPO) of national oil firm KazMunayGaz to beyond 2019, two banking sources said, slowing the ...

The Business Times
Measles Outbreak Reported in Kazakhstan  PrecisionVaccinations

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Level 1 Travel Alert on January 22, 2019, in response to a measles virus outbreak in the ...

Kazakhstan: President says he is going nowhere  Eurasianet

“Come on, calm down and let's work normally.” Those were the closing words of a February 5 video message issued by Kazakhstan's president as he rushed to ...

Kazakhstan: People vs. Police  EurasiaNet

Clannishness has eclipsed competence among Kazakhstan's police. So few believe the government is genuine about reform.

World weightlifting champion is one of Kazakhstan's 100 New Faces  Astana Times

ASTANA – When Vitaly Didenko came into the sports club as a boy to improve his health, he could not imagine that within a few years he would achieve great ...

Astana Times
Telemedicine in Kazakhstan: smart health services delivery  World Health Organization

Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked country in the world, spanning nearly 3 million square kilometres. Its geographic size means that much of the population ...

World Health Organization
Kazakhstan is about the size of Europe — but we know almost nothing about it  Spectator.co.uk

Kazakhstan, say signs by the side of the road in this vast Central Asian country, is 'a land of unity and accord'. Few outside pay a great deal of…

Kazakhstan announces time of signing “open sky” agreement with US  AzerNews

Kazakhstan and the US will sign an agreement on launching direct flights between the two countries on "open sky" principle in March, Trend reports citing ...

EAEU countries invest more in Kazakhstan  AzerNews

Minister of National Economy of Kazakhstan Timur Suleimenov at the government hour in the Senate on the trade policy implementation of Kazakhstan in the ...

Kazakhstan Shocked By Brutal School Bullying Video  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

A debate about the prevalence of bullying in Kazakhstan's schools has been ignited by a video that showed students being viciously attacked in the city of ...

Here Comes The Sun, To Help Power Kazakhstan  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

Kazakhstan has just launched operation of the largest solar power station in Central Asia, in the central Karaganda Province, the heart of coal country.

Kazakhstan's troubles switching from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet  TRT World

The move has triggered criticism but experts argue it will help the nation of 18 million Turkic-speaking people break away from Russia's cultural and political ...

TRT World
This 'Hero Mother' Delivered, Now She Wants Kazakhstan To Live Up To Its Promises  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

Madina Taurbaeva recently renounced her Hero Mother status, and the gold medal that came with it. She is keeping her personal retirement plan -- a dozen ...

Indian companies to build power plants in Kazakhstan  Times of Central Asia

ASTANA (TCA) — Indian companies will take part in construction of solar and coal power plants in Kazakhstan. NTPC Limited, India's largest power ...

Times of Central Asia
Kazakhstan: Investigators drop blackmail probe against mining exec  Eurasianet

In the latest twist of a face-off between a mining giant in Kazakhstan and the journalist who has been a thorn in their side, investigators have dropped a probe ...

Kazakhstan bites bullet and completes $3.4bn bailout of second largest bank  bne IntelliNews

Kazakhstan has finalised a $3.4bn bailout of its second largest lender Tsesnabank. The move involved state-run brokerage First Heartland Securities taking over ...

bne IntelliNews
Sweet Victoria: Kazakhstan team says thanks with video tribute  Times Colonist

From Astana to Victoria, with love. The Kazakhstan junior hockey team has posted a YouTube tribute to the B.C. capital, which adopted the squad as underdog ...

Times Colonist
Kazakhstan to open 10 trade missions this year  AzerNews

Kazakhstan ranks 50th among the largest exporting countries, Trend reports referring to the Kazakh media.

Kazakhstan: Court clears woman charged of incitement to revolt  Eurasianet

A court in Kazakhstan has surprised many by acquitting a mother of four accused of calling for the violent overthrow of the government. What is behind this rare ...

Uzbekistan Extradites BTA Bank Case Suspect To Kazakhstan  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

Uzbekistan has extradited a man suspected of embezzlement to neighboring Kazakhstan, the latest development in a politically-charged case involving the ...

World Bank forecasts Kazakhstan's growth to ease to 3.5 percent in 2019  Astana Times

ASTANA – The growth rate of Kazakhstan's economy will decrease to 3.5 percent this year as oil production growth levels off and further fiscal consolidation ...

Astana Times
Earthquake of 5.8 magnitude registered on border between Kazakhstan and China  TASS

ASTANA, February 2. /TASS/. An eathquake of 5.8 magnitude was registered on the border between Kazakhstan and China, spokesman for Kazakhstan's ...

Fed Cup: Kazakhstan too strong for India  The Hindu

Takes on China for the spot in the World Group-2 play-off.

The Hindu
Kazakhstan to expand types of goods exported  Astana Times

ASTANA – Kazakhstan will expand the types of products it exports this year,, said Kazakh Vice Minister for Industry and Infrastructure Development Arystan ...

Astana Times
Risen Energy connects 40MW PV project in Kazakhstan to national grid  PV-Tech

Risen Energy has formally connected a 40MW photovoltaic power station project in Kazakhstan to the national grid. With this development, Risen Energy stands ...

Kazakhstan, US to open direct flights  AzerNews

The Civil Aviation Committee of Kazakhstan is completing work on the signing of an agreement on air communication between the governments of Kazakhstan ...

EU-Kazakhstan relations: From security issues to regional cooperation  EURACTIV

2019 is an important year for EU-Kazakhstan relations, in anticipation of the full entry into force of the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement ...

Kazakhstan, EU discuss cooperation in Brussels [PHOTO]  AzerNews

The 17th meeting of the Kazakhstan-EU Cooperation Committee was held in Brussels, the press *service* of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan reports.

When will Kazakhstan start exporting oil products?  AzerNews

Kazakhstan will start exporting oil products, except diesel fuel, in March 2019, Trend reports referring to the Kazakh media.

Kazakhstan completes 100MW PV project  PV-Tech

The government of Kazakhstan's northern region of Karaganda has announced the completion and operation of a 100MW PV project in Saran, which the ...

Kazakhstan: Trailblazers fight to teach shoppers the novelty of the old  Eurasianet

One recent cold January morning, Nurzhamal Moldazhanova began the working day by putting a 50 percent discount sign outside her Astana store.

Kazakhstan: ArcelorMittal Temirtau loses court case against reporter  Eurasianet

A court in an industrial city in central Kazakhstan has ruled in favor of a journalist in a libel suit filed by a major international metals and mining company.

Kazakhstan's poultry undergoing strong production growth  Poultry World

Kazakhstan aims to boost the domestic poultry meat production fourfold by 2027, as compared to the current level to 740000 tonnes per year. Ruslan Sharipov ...

Poultry World
She Fled China’s Camps—but She’s Still Not Free  Foreign Policy

ALMATY, Kazakhstan—Speaking to a packed courthouse in eastern Kazakhstan in August 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay—an ethnic Kazakh Chinese ...

Foreign Policy
Kazakhstan, Japan set to launch direct flights  AzerNews

Kazakhstan is working on opening direct regular flight to Japan in 2019, according to the Civil Aviation Committee of Kazakhstan's Ministry of Industry and ...

Emphasis on economic diplomacy positions Kazakhstan well to attract investment in times of growing competition  Astana Times

In today's highly competitive global environment, economic and trade ties are an increasingly important part of international diplomacy. Nowadays, official ...

Astana Times
Sarah Cameron: Famine and Unimaginable Sorrow in Soviet Kazakhstan  The Diplomat

The 1930-33 period “was a time of almost unimaginable sorrow in Soviet Kazakhstan,” Sarah Cameron, an assistant professor of history at the University of ...

The Diplomat
Kazakhstan's National Bank discloses reasons for weakening of tenge  AzerNews

The market rate of Kazakhstan's national currency reached 382.74 tenge against the US dollar, decreasing from 377.46 tenge by 1.4 percent for the week during ...

Population of Kazakhstan reaches 18.39 million people  AKIpress

AKIPRESS.COM - Population of Kazakhstan has reached 18.395 million people by January 1, 2019, the Statistics Committee at the Ministry of National ...

Kazakhstan to participate in OPEC+ Monitoring Committee meeting in Baku  AzerNews

Kazakhstan will take part in a meeting of the OPEC+ Monitoring Committee in Baku as a member of the group, said Deputy Minister of Energy of Kazakhstan ...

Boris Kerimbaev, Commander Of 'Muslim Battalion' In Soviet Afghan War, Dies  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

A commander of the so-called Muslim Battalion of Soviet troops in Afghanistan, retired Colonel Boris Kerimbaev, has died at the age of 71 in Kazakhstan.

EBRD to Finance a 50 MW Solar Project in Southern Kazakhstan  Mercom India

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has announced the financing of a 50 MW solar power project in southern Kazakhstan.

Mercom India
Kazakhstan participating in largest agricultural exhibition in Germany  AzerNews

Kazakhstan is participating for the first time in Green Week, the largest international agricultural exhibition in Germany, Trend reports referring to the Kazakh ...

Kazakh Judge Fired After Opposition Activist's Acquittal  RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty

The chief judge of a court in western Kazakhstan has been fired after his court acquitted an opposition activist in a high-profile case.

31.01.2019 Andrew Parsons meets Kazakhstan PM  International Paralympic Committee

International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Andrew Parsons has travelled to Astana, Kazahkstan, to visit the National Paralympic Training Centre and ...

International Paralympic Committee
East Turkestan: Kazakhstan Responds to Chinese House Arrests  UNPO

On Monday 21 January, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan issued a statement urging Chinese authorities to only carry out lawful practices in East ...

Tajikistan, Kazakhstan eye to increase trade to $2B  AzerNews

Kazakh Foreign Minister Beibut Atamkulov met with the Ambassador of Tajikistan Nazirmad Alizoda on the occasion of the completion of his diplomatic mission ...

Integration of higher education in Kazakhstan into the global community  QS WOW News

There are two critical growing trends that could be outlined in the field of higher education in Kazakhstan. These trends are attractiveness and growing...

Kazakhstan to present its first report to UN on SDG progress  Astana Times

ASTANA – Kazakhstan will report to the United Nations (UN) in New York this year on its implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the ...

Astana Times
Kazakhstan's uranium exports reach $700M  AzerNews

Kazakhstan exported 14200 tons of uranium in January-September 2018, which in money amounted to $699.1 million, Trend reports referring to EnergyProm.kz.

Kazakhstan to launch flight to Egypt  AviationPros.com

In the summer of this year, direct flights to Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, will be launched from Kazakhstan's Petropavl airport, Trend reports referring to the Kazakh ...

International Paralympic Committee President makes first visit to Kazakhstan  Astana Times

ASTANA – International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Andrew Parsons visited Kazakhstan for the first time Jan. 30-31, reports the Astana Akimat (city ...

Astana Times
Kazakhstan's Nazarbayev in “cowards” outburst at ministers failing with banks clean-up  bne IntelliNews

Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev has called his ministers “cowards” for taking inadequate measures to clean up the country's banking sector, while ...

bne IntelliNews
Kazakhstan, Zimbabwe to identify economic cooperation areas  Astana Times

The delegation toured sights in the capital and met with the local business community. Mnangagwa and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev officially met ...

Astana Times
Kazakhstan responds to house arrests by China  Anadolu Agency

Foreign Ministry spokesperson says they are in close cooperation with Chinese partners - Anadolu Agency.

Anadolu Agency
100 MW Saran solar park commissioned in Kazakhstan  pv magazine International

The SES Saran solar project is in the Karaganda region. The project was financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and built by ...

pv magazine International
Kazakhstan, US to construct plant for production of non-GMO soybean seeds  AzerNews

Kazakhstan and the US will construct a plant for production of corn seeds and non-GMO soybeans, according to director general of KazSeed Almas Tatishev.

Kazakhstan offers global investors stable political, social and economic climate, says Kazakh Invest executive  Astana Times

ASTANA – Kazakhstan is able to offer stable political, social and economic conditions and sufficient infrastructure for global investors, said Kazakh Invest Deputy ...

Astana Times
Exclusive: Kazakhstan urgently looking for bank to take over Tsesnabank - sources  Reuters UK

The Kazakh authorities are urgently looking for a bank to take over no. 2 lender Tsesnabank as they believe it needs new financing to prevent a collapse, three ...

Reuters UK
Kazakhstan Paramount Engineering a big user of Allison transmissions  defenceWeb

Kazakhstan Paramount Engineering (KPE), a joint venture between Paramount Group and Kazakhstan Engineering, is making use of Allison automatic ...

AIBA launch investigation after Kazakhstan group offer to organise Tokyo 2020 boxing tournament  Insidethegames.biz

A taskforce has been established by the International Boxing Association (AIBA) to investigate, what they claim is, a "rogue group of Kazakhstani individuals" ...

Mnangagwa arrives in Kazakhstan  Bulawayo24 News

President Emmerson Mnangagwa has landed in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan from Azerbaijan this Saturday evening.He was received by the Minister of ...

Bulawayo24 News
TABLE-Kazakhstan's 2018 copper output up; zinc, steel down  Reuters

Kazakhstan's 2018 refined copper output rose 2.8 percent year-on-year while refined zinc production inched down 0.7 percent and crude steel output dropped ...

Kazakhstan firms keen on Zim investment  zbc.co.zw

Jan 20, 2019 | Business | 0 |. Kazakhstan firms keen on Zim investment. Over 50 Kazakhstan companies have expressed interest in partnering Zimbabwean ...

Team Kazakhstan thanks Victoria hockey fans for show of support  CTV Vancouver Island

The team was taking part in its first international hockey tournament in a decade.

CTV Vancouver Island
Singapore investors to build international schools in Kazakhstan  Astana Times

ASTANA – Singapore-based Pegasus Education Group will invest in educational institutions based on the Singapore continuing education system in Astana, ...

Astana Times
Fed Cup 2019: Kazakhstan defeats Thailand  Sportstar

Host Kazakhstan got off to a positive start in its Fed Cup Asia-Oceania group-1 challenge, beating Thailand 3-0 without dropping a set in Astana, Kazakhstan, ...

Kazakhstan will kick off Euro 2020 bid at home against Scotland, Russia  Astana Times

ASTANA – The Kazakh national football team will begin its Euro 2020 qualifying campaign with home matches at Astana Arena against Scotland and Russia ...

Astana Times
Kazakhstan's National Bank identifies microfinance, insurance organisations' 2018 violations  Astana Times

ASTANA – The Kazakh National Bank recently identified microfinance and insurance organisations' violations of consumer rights and interests committed in ...

Astana Times
EBRD, GCF to support 50-MW solar plant in Kazakhstan  Renewables Now

January 29 (Renewables Now) - The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) are providing USD 50.4 ...

Renewables Now
Aqkol becomes first smart city in Kazakhstan  Astana Times

ASTANA – The SmartAqkol project has entirely digitised all consumer and public services in Aqkol, making the small city 100 kilometres north of Astana ...

Astana Times
President Mnangagwa’s address to representatives of the Kazakhstan business community in Astana  The Herald

The following is a transcript of the address delivered by President Emmerson D Mnangagwa at his meeting with representatives of the Kazakhstan business ...

The Herald
Risen Energy completes 40-MW PV plant in Kazakhstan  Renewables Now

January 31 (Renewables Now) - Chinese solar module producer Risen Energy Co Ltd (SHE:300118) announced on Wednesday it has put on stream a 40-MW ...

Renewables Now
Kazakhstan increases municipal solid waste recycling by 3 percent  Astana Times

ASTANA – Kazakhstan's share of municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling increased to 11.5 percent last year, compared to 9 percent in 2017. The country ...

Astana Times
Kazakhstan launches pilot programme using biometric data to deliver public services  Astana Times

ASTANA – Kazakh citizens will soon be able to receive public services using biometric data by scanning their faces and fingerprints. The programme will be ...

Astana Times
Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran Sign Memorandum of Understanding on Wheat Supplies - Statement  UrduPoint News

Russian, Kazakh and Iranian Ministries of Agriculture have signed a trilateral memorandum of understanding on the issue of wheat trade, the Eurasian ...

UrduPoint News
National Bank of Kazakhstan keeps base rate at 9.25 percent  Astana Times

ASTANA – National Bank of Kazakhstan announced plans to keep the base rate at 9.25 percent with an interest rate band of +/- 1 percent, reported the bank's ...

Astana Times
Mansour bin Zayed receives Ambassador of Kazakhstan  Emirates 24|7

H.H. Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Presidential Affairs, today received outgoing Ambassador of Kazakhstan to ...

Emirates 24|7
Breed societies in talks with Kazakhstan cattle buyers  The Weekly Times

Discussions have commenced between Australian breed societies and a group looking to export cattle to the central Asian country this year. While not a ...

The Weekly Times
Glaciers Are Retreating. Millions Rely on Their Water.  New York Times

Glaciers are crucial sources of water for people and crops in Central Asia. But global warming is causing glaciers there and around the world to shrink every ...

New York Times
Video of the Week: Kazakhstan's Tuyuksu Glacier in The New York Times  GlacierHub

A New York Times multimedia feature highlights the impacts of glacier retreat in Cental Asia.

NCOC announces shutdown of Kazakhstan's Kashagan oil field  AzerNews

Oil production at Kazakhstan's Kashagan oil field will be completely stopped for 45 days, Trend reports referring to Kazakh media.

Kazakhstan's Karaganda region increases external trade turnover  AzerNews

The external trade turnover of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan amounted to $4.27 billion in 2018, which is an increase of 7 percent compared to 2017, the ...


Kazakhstan Videos

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Geography Now! Kazakhstan
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Kazakhstan - Our Time Is Now - Documentary
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Hungary - Kazakhstan | Live | 2018 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship Division I Group A
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Hungary - Kazakhstan | Highlights | 2018 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship Division I Group A
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How Powerful Is Kazakhstan? | NowThis World
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Kazakhstan Documentary
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Ben Zand in Dictatorland: Kazakhstan
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Picking Up Girls in Kazakhstan (With Tom Torero)

Kazakhstan Images

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Oskemen - Wikipedia
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Embassy of Kazakhstan in Washington, D.C. - Wikipedia
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Kazakhstan Photo Gallery - People
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Beautiful single women Anastassiya 26 years from ...
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The Astana, Sarawak - Wikipedia
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Samruk-Kazyna - Wikipedia
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URBEX – Enter At Your Own Risk - Wikipedia
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The Best 100 Photographs Selected by National Geographic ...
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подводная охота на Каспии и автотуризм - Старт

Kazakhstan WebSites


Kazakhstan Wiki

Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] (listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia; the most western parts are located in Europe. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country's largest city.The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion", and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed. The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, and TURKSOY.