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NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2018 Google Inc.Sat, 15 Dec 2018 20:26:59 GMTGoogle News
Gunmen kill dozens of Tuareg civilians in Mali violence  Al Jazeera English

Armed men on motorbikes killed more than 40 Tuareg civilians this week in northern Mali, where clashes over land and scarce water are common, an official ...

Al Jazeera English
Suspected jihadists kill 42 in Mali's nomadic Tuareg camps  Washington Post

BAMAKO, Mali — Suspected jihadists on motorcycles have killed at least 42 people during a series of attacks on Tuareg nomadic camps in Mali, local leaders ...

Washington Post
Dozens killed near Mali's border with Niger  All India Radio

In Mali, several dozen civilians have been shot dead by gunmen who raided homes in northeast near the border with Niger. Officials and a Touareg self-defence ...

All India Radio
State allocates €4.2 million to finance EDF's Afghanistan, Mali missions  ERR News

The Estonian government has allocated the Ministry of Defence €4.2 million to cover the costs of the Estonian Defence Forces' (EDF) missions in Afghanistan ...

ERR News
Flying Eagles beat Mali on penalties to reach final of WAFU U-20 Cup  Pulse Nigeria

The Flying Eagles of Nigeria beat their Malian counterparts 5-4 on penalties on Friday, December 14 in the ongoing 2018 WAFU U-20 Cup.

Pulse Nigeria
Germany opens negligent homicide probe in Mali Airbus chopper crash  News24

German prosecutors have said they had opened a probe against three individuals for negligent homicide in the 2017 crash of a German military helicopter in a ...

Mali says foiled New Year's Eve terror attacks  Rappler

Authorities say the suspects earlier 'took part in the double attack on March 2 in Ouagadougou' as well as the abduction of a Colombian nun in February 2017 in ...

Mali: New law will reinforce the culture of impunity for human rights violations  Amnesty International

Amnesty International is urging the Malian authorities not to vote in a new law which may allow the perpetrators of killings, torture and other atrocities to escape ...

Amnesty International
Several dozen killed near Mali's border with Niger  News24

Several dozen civilians have been shot dead by gunmen who raided an area in northeastern Mali near the border with Niger, local officials and a Touareg ...

Jihadists deny Mali leader killed in French-led attack  EWN

The former colonial ruler has deployed the 4500-member Barkhane force in the region to repel attacks and stem insurgency.

U-20 WAFU CUP : Flying Eagles Stop Mali, To Face Senegal In Final  Complete Sports Nigeria

Nigeria will face Senegal in the final of the U-20 WAFU Cup on Sunday after edging out Mali 5-4 on penalties in their semi-final fixture.

Complete Sports Nigeria
Fifteen civilians killed in ethnic attack on Mali village  Reuters

Fifteen civilians from the Fulani community were killed last week when armed men from a rival ethnic group attacked their village in central Mali, a regional ...

Black Satellites to face Senegal, Mali & Burkina Faso in 2019 AYC  Ghana Football Association

Ghana have been placed in Group B of the 2019 Africa Youth (U20)Championship (AYC) alongside, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso.Coach Jimmy Cobblah's ...

Ghana Football Association
Top Mali jihadist Amadou Koufa killed in French raid - army  BBC News

Radical preacher Amadou Kou, who headed a militant group, is said to have died on Friday.

BBC News
Spread of Jihadism Turns Central Mali Into Deadliest Region  Bloomberg

A mix of jihadist violence, communal conflict and suspected army abuse have rendered central Mali the country's deadliest region as the influence of Islamist ...

Bangladeshi formed police unit provides free medical consultations in Mali  United News of Bangladesh

Dhaka, Dec 15 (UNB) - Bangladeshi Formed Police Unit (BANFPU-2) has provided free medical consultations for the people of Goundam town in Mali. The free ...

United News of Bangladesh
Cameroon beat Mali 4-2 to clinch place at Women's World Cup  BBC Sport

Cameroon beat Mali 4-2 in the Women's Africa Cup of Nations third place play-off match in Cape Coast to seal a spot at next year's Women's World Cup.

BBC Sport
Fake news peddlers alleged that i'm from Mali - El-Rufai  Legit.ng

Legit.ng News ☆ Nasir El-Rufai, the executive governor of Kaduna state, has urged the Muhammadu Buhari-led federal government to enact a law that would ...

“We Used to Be Brothers” Self-Defense Group Abuses in Central Mali - Mali  ReliefWeb

Mali: Dangerous Upsurge in Abuse by Ethnic Militias. Protect Civilians, Disarm 'Self-Defense' Groups. Ethnic militias have killed over 200 civilians and burned ...

French forces kill at least 30 extremists in central Mali  News24

France's ministry for the armed forces says its anti-terrorism forces in Mali have killed at least 30 al-Qaeda-linked extremists in central Mali.

Saving for Change and Reproductive Health - Segou Region, Mali  Oxfam America

In January 2017, Oxfam and its local implementing partner G-FORCE launched Saving for Change (SfC) + Reproductive Health in the Segou region of Mali.

Oxfam America
The European Union mobilises an extra €50 million for structural reforms in Mali.  EU News

The European Union is stepping up cooperation with Mali and the implementation of structural reforms to improve security, governance and access to basic ...

EU News
Ellis: ‘We are going to treat the match against Mali as a final’  EWN

Now Desiree Ellis' side knows that a win in the semifinals against Mali will secure them a place in a World Cup for the first time ever.

Mali says it confirms death of veteran jihadist leader Koufa  Channel NewsAsia

BAMAKO: Mali's army said on Saturday it had confirmed the death of Amadou Koufa, one of the most prominent jihadist leaders in the country, in a ...

Channel NewsAsia
Amadou Haidara: Mali midfielder out for at least four months  BBC Sport

Mali international Amadou Haidara will be out of action for at least four months with a knee injury, according to his Austrian club RB Salzburg.

BBC Sport
Gold production resumes at Randgold's Loulo mine in Mali  Kitco News

BAMAKO, Dec 12 (Reuters) - Production at Randgold's Loulo gold mine in Mali resumed on Wednesday after a week-long outage over a pay dispute, the head ...

Kitco News
ACLED Regional Overview – Africa (27 November 2018) - Mali  ReliefWeb

Key trends in Africa in the week of November 18th include the large campaigns launched against Islamist militants in Mali and Somalia and the high Boko ...

Cameroon and Mali reach the Women's Afcon semi-finals as hosts Ghana go out  BBC Sport

Cameroon and Mali qualified for the 2018 Women's Africa Cup of Nations semi-finals from Group A on Friday as hosts Ghana were eliminated along with Algeria ...

BBC Sport
State services in an insecure environment: Perceptions among civil society in Mali - Mali  ReliefWeb

Aurélien Tobie and Dr Grégory Chauzal. I. Introduction. Mali was once considered to be a leading example of democratic progress and stability in sub-Saharan ...

Canada resisting UN request to extend Mali mission: sources  CBC.ca

The Trudeau government is reportedly resisting a United Nations request to extend Canada's peacekeeping mission in Mali so medical evacuations can ...

Mali singer Salif Keita highlights plight of Africans with albinism  EWN

I was the sole albino,” he told Reuters in an interview. “I knew immediately that I was different from the other children.”

New violence eclipses Mali's plans for peace  IRINnews.org

Early warnings of conflict in central Mali went largely unheeded. The message from peacekeepers is clear: “Act now before it is too late”

Mali to produce lithium by 2020 after 694,000 tons discovered  Automotive News

BAMAKO, Mali — Mali is on track to start lithium production by 2020 and companies have already discovered 694,000 tons of exploitable reserves, a senior ...

Automotive News
Djingareyber Mosque – Timbuktu, Mali  Atlas Obscura

Discover Djingareyber Mosque in Timbuktu, Mali: One of Western Africa's oldest mosques, this Timbuktu icon has stood for nearly 700 years.

Atlas Obscura
African G5 force 'better' than UN's in Mali: Mauritania's Aziz  News24

A fledgling African regional force fighting jihadists in Sahel countries is more effective - with fewer resources - than a UN mission with a similar remit in Mali, the ...

Mali's central region faces unprecedented violence: Report  News24

Mali faces unprecedented violence in its central region where extremists, armed groups and the military are committing abuses as fighters linked to al-Qaida and ...

Mali singer, albino activist raises awareness of violence  PAHomePage.com

BAMAKO, Mali (AP) - Singer-songwriter and albino activist Salif Keita assembled an international forum on protecting albino people in Africa and dedicated a ...

Mali stun AWCON hosts Ghana as Cameroon beat Algeria  BBC Sport

Indomitable Lionesses lead pool A at the Africa Women's Cup of Nations, but all four teams still have a chance of going through.

BBC Sport
Arlington rug sale to support Mali project  Wicked Local

Healthy Tomorrow will be holding a rug sale from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Dec. 8 at the First Parish in Arlington, 620 Massachusetts Ave.All proceeds will go to support ...

Wicked Local
UN mission in Mali tries to bring aid despite al-Qaeda attacks  Aljazeera.com

MINUSMA is intended to keep the peace but is stepping in to fill the gap left by other aid organisations while being increasingly targeted by al-Qaeda.

MALI: More than 34,000 persons waiting for humanitarian aid  Norwegian Refugee Council

While the number of people fleeing intercommunal violence, armed groups' activities, and military operations is rising in central and northern Mali, humanitarian ...

Norwegian Refugee Council
Mali singer Salif Keita highlights plight of African albinos  Reuters

BAMAKO/DAKAR (Reuters) -. Like many people, Malian musician Salif Keita first became aware he was different when he started school. His skin was white; ...

Savannah's Mali Music stars in 'Revival!' movie  WSAV-TV

A Savannah native and Grammy-nominated singer will make his debut on the big screen--but folks in his hometown may not be able to see him.

Canada has not been asked to extend Mali commitment: Sajjan  CTV News

Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan said he has not been asked by the United Nations to extend Canada's peacekeeping mission in Mali, which is set to end in July.

CTV News
Dr. Mali's top 5 stories in ophthalmology for 2018  Ophthalmology Times

It's that time of the year again when I reflect on such an exciting and dynamic year in ophthalmology! Here are my top 5 most significant stories in ophthalmology ...

Ophthalmology Times
AFCON 2019: Mali and Morocco qualify for Cameroon  BBC Sport

Morocco qualified for next year's Africa Cup of Nations without kicking a ball on Saturday while Mali won 1-0 in Gabon to progress. The Atlas Lions qualify with a ...

BBC Sport
Mali: Flow Monitoring Points - Dashboard No. 33 (1 to 31 October 2018) - Mali  ReliefWeb

IOM works with national and local authorities to gain a better understanding of population movements throughout West and Central Africa. Flow Monitoring ...

Two Camp Lejeune Marines, two Navy Seals charged in murder of Green Beret in Mali  The News & Observer

Two Marines from an elite Raiders unit based at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina and two members of the storied Navy SEAL Team 6 face murder charges in ...

The News & Observer
Mali: MyAgro's mobile payment platform to go fully digital [Sci tech]  africanews

On Sci tech this week, Ignatius Annor introduces you to MyAgro, an organization operating in Mali and Senegal with the vision to get rural farmers out of poverty.

Banyana down Mali to qualify for Fifa World Cup  Citizen

Thembi Kgatlana of South Africa celebrates with teammates during the 2018 TOTAL African Womens Cup of Nations semi final match between South Africa and ...

Algeria detects 11 missiles near border with Mali  Middle East Monitor

The Algerian army has discovered a hideout containing 11 surface-to-air missiles near the country's border with Mali, the defence ministry announced yesterday.

Middle East Monitor
Four U.S. Commandos Charged in Strangling of Army Green Beret in Africa  The New York Times

WASHINGTON — Two members of the Navy's elite SEAL Team 6 and two Marine Corps Special Operations troops have been charged in the strangling of an ...

The New York Times
Phoenix Thoroughbreds buys into top sprinter Sands Of Mali and targets Dubai | Horse Racing News  Racing Post

Phoenix Thoroughbreds has bought into Group 1-winning sprinter Sands Of Mali, who will stay in training with Richard Fahey and be targeted at the Al Quoz ...

Racing Post
Tuareg leader: Suspected jihadists on motorcycles kill at least 42 in Mali's eastern Menaka region  New Zealand Herald

BAMAKO, Mali (AP) — Tuareg leader: Suspected jihadists on motorcycles kill at least 42 in Mali's eastern Menaka region.

New Zealand Herald
Explorers Discover 649,000 Tons of Lithium in Mali, Boosting Supply for Tech and Auto Companies  The Drive

With global lithium reserves sitting at around 16 million tons, this latest discovery is a substantial find for tech interests relying on the mineral.

The Drive
Kodal Minerals intercepts more lithium mineralisation on Mali portfolio  Proactive Investors UK

Kodal Minerals PLC (LON:KOD) - Plenty of newsflow is expected, as drilling on the Mali portfolio is continues.

Proactive Investors UK
BBC World Service - Newsday, Mali singer: a world without migrants would be 'very boring'  BBC News

Malian Fatoumata Diawara is now a successful singer and songwriter, but she was herself once a migrant. Now she's using her latest album, Fenfo, to appeal for ...

BBC News
U-20 WAFU Cup: Flying Eagles Pip Ghana, To Face Mali In Semi-Final  Complete Sports Nigeria

U-20 WAFU Cup: Flying Eagles Pipped Ghana in Group B. They will face Mali in the semi-finals Niger will do battle with Senegal in the other last four clash.

Complete Sports Nigeria
Neighbors in Arms: Intercommunal Violence and Targeting of Civilians in Mali in 2018 - Mali  ReliefWeb

"In the run up to Mail's 2018 elections, communal violence - a longstanding feature of the political violence landscape - increased dramatically, reaching anew ...

Nova Scotia miner starts drilling in Mali  MINING.com

Roscan's Kandiolé project is located in the gold prospective Birimian Rocks of West Mali.

Cora Gold Raises GBP550,000 To Fund Mali Sanankoro Flagship Drilling (ALLISS)  Morningstar

LONDON (Alliance News) - Cora Gold Ltd on Thursday said it has raised GBP549,245 through subscription and placing of 11.0 million shares at a price of 5 ...

Mali gold mine to slash power bill with 40 MW solar hybrid plant  pv magazine International

Australian mining company Resolute Mining has inked a JDA and PPA with Ignite Energy, to construct what it says is the world's largest off-grid solar hybrid plant ...

pv magazine International
Mali: Flow Monitoring Points - Results Snapshot No. 33 (30 June 2016 to 31 October 2018) - Mali  ReliefWeb

English Infographic on Mali and 19 other countries about Protection and Human Rights, Aged Persons, Children and more; published on 31 Oct 2018 by IOM.

WATCH: Fatoumata Diarra's brace hands Mali victory over Algeria  Goal.com

A second half double from the forward helped the Malians survive a scare from the Algerians at the Cape Coast Stadium, Ghana.

AQIM emir confirms death of jihadist commander in Mali  Long War Journal

In a new audio message released yesterday, al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) leader Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud confirmed the death of an important ...

Long War Journal
Ghana defensive tower Ampah eyeing Mali scalp to keep 'historic' Awcon dream alive  Goal.com

Ghana defensive tower Ampah eyeing Mali scalp to keep 'historic' Awcon dream alive.

SG of Mali's truth commission brutally assaults and threatens editor  IFEX

The secretary general of Mali's newly established Truth, Reconciliation and Reparations Commission (TRRC) Colonel Abdoulaye Makalou brutally assaulted ...

Scottish Government gives £300,000 aid to Mali - ITV News  ITV News

The Scottish Government has given £300,000 from its humanitarian emergency fund (HEF) to help provide vital supplies such as food and water for displaced ...

ITV News
Banyana now set for semis showdown with Mali  DispatchLIVE

Banyana Banyana's Africa Women's Cup of Nations (Awcon) semifinal against Mali on Tuesday is their final‚ South Africa coach Desiree Ellis said after her team ...

Congratulations are in order after Banyana Banyana beat Mali last night  Mpumalanga News

Social media users took to social media to congratulate the national team with some saying the team did not get the recognition it deserves.

Mpumalanga News
Mali: Dogon hunters kill a dozen Fulani herders after rejecting ceasefire  The Defense Post

Dogon hunters were blamed for killing a dozen Fulani herders in Ouenkoro in Mali, after an ethnic Dogon armed group rejected a month-old ceasefire.

The Defense Post
Mali reveals its gold wealth for these ASX small caps  Stockhead

We've all seen the headlines highlighting the issues in the Congo and Tanzania, but when it comes to underexplored Mali, the West African country is proving ...

Poet Taylor Mali Visits Hall High School  Hartford Courant

It seemed like an easy exercise for the students in the Voices class at Hall High School. One by one, they stood up, welcomed their classmates and said their ...

Hartford Courant
Quick Read: Suspected jihadists kill 42 in Mali's nomadic Tuareg camps  Safe Travels Magazine

A Tuareg leader says suspected jihadists on motorcycles have killed at least 42 people in Mali's eastern Menaka region during a series of attacks on their ...

Safe Travels Magazine
The sand diggers of Mali – in pictures | World news  The Guardian

A building boom in the capital, Bamako, has sparked a surge in demand for bricks made from high-quality sand dug by hand from the bed of the Niger River.

The Guardian
Keïta Gets 2nd Term as Mali President With Runoff Victory  The New York Times

BAMAKO, Mali — President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta of Mali claimed an overwhelming victory on Thursday in a runoff vote after a controversial first round of ...

The New York Times
Rapid progress is needed in Mali to implement Peace Agreement.  GOV.UK

Statement by Ambassador Jonathan Allen, UK Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, ahead of the Security Council Briefing on Mali.

Mali is melting down. Here’s why the West should be paying attention.  The Washington Post

Blair Glencorse is executive director of the Accountability Lab. Moussa Kondo is the director of Accountability Lab Mali and an Obama Foundation fellow. Follow ...

The Washington Post
Africa Minister visits Mali as UK deepens efforts to stabilise the region  GOV.UK

Foreign Office and DFID Minister for Africa Harriett Baldwin visited Mali on 8-9 November 2018. Her visit comes as the UK is increasing its engagement with ...

Mali votes in runoff election amid heavy security presence  The Guardian

Millions of Malians are voting in an unprecedented runoff presidential election that has been overshadowed by widespread allegations of fraud and the threat of ...

The Guardian
Two UN peacekeepers killed in Mali attacks  Al Jazeera English

Two United Nations peacekeepers have been killed and "several others" wounded in two attacks in northern and central Mali, the UN mission in the west African ...

Al Jazeera English
Mali: Sunday's election runoff goes ahead despite fraud claims  The Guardian

Ibrahim Boubacar Keita faces Soumaila Cissé after first round marred by ballot stuffing accusations and security concerns.

The Guardian
Mali is slipping back into chaos  The Globe and Mail

Robert Muggah is the co-founder of the SecDev Group and Igarapé Institute. Mali experienced a rare glimmer of stability this month. Although voter turnout was ...

The Globe and Mail
Mali peace deal jeopardised by armed groups linked to terrorism, UN warns  The Guardian

UN security council takes unusual step of identifying signatories that have hampered implementation of 2015 agreement.

The Guardian
Navy Completes Inquiry Into Strangling Death of Army Green Beret in Mali  The New York Times

WASHINGTON — Navy criminal authorities have completed their investigation into the strangling of an Army Green Beret in June 2017 in Mali, and sent their ...

The New York Times
Mali name six foreign-based players for Women's Afcon finals  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Saloum Houssein has named six foreign-based players in his squad for the Women's Africa Cup of Nations finals in Ghana.

BBC Sport
Mali name squad for Afcon qualifiers against Burundi  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Magassouba calls up 18-year old Cheick Oumar Doucouré and France-born striker Alimani Gory ahead of the Nations Cup qualifiers ...

BBC Sport
Mali has an important election on Sunday. Will it be peaceful?  The Washington Post

On Sunday, the first round of Mali's presidential election will take place. Tensions are high: Political parties have failed to agree on some fundamental issues that ...

The Washington Post
Mali election: Militia mayhem threatens vote  BBC News

The presidential election is set for 29 July despite militias terrorising large parts of the country.

BBC News
France to press Mali to implement peace deal with rebels  Reuters

France will press Mali's re-elected President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita on Saturday to move more quickly to bring into force faltering peace accords with rebels as ...

Mali, Algeria, and the uneasy search for peace  European Council on Foreign Relations

This summer, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was re-elected to Mali's presidency; his plan for peace in the country can stem the conflict, but as the Algerian case shows, ...

European Council on Foreign Relations
Mali jihadists block schooling for 2 000 children  News24

Nearly 2 000 children in Mali have stopped going to school after suspected Islamists warned they would only allow religious education, teachers and local ...

Khaira Arby, Outspoken Malian Singer With Global Reach, Dies at 58  The New York Times

The “Nightingale of Timbuktu” spoke out against Islamist oppression and sang out again female genital cutting, reaching audiences far beyond Africa.

The New York Times
What's behind Mali livestock herders joining jihadist groups  News24

In Mali, jihadist groups have taken control of more than half the country since 2012. How has such a fundamental change been possible in a country previously ...

The United Nations is winning the war in Mali  Mail and Guardian

Today Gao is a much different place, thanks to the United Nations and the French military, which intervened at the last minute to save Mali. (Reuters/Emma ...

Mail and Guardian
Third candidate claims place in Mali election run-off  Reuters

BAMAKO (Reuters) - Three candidates in Mali's presidential election claimed on Tuesday to have made it into a two-candidate run-off vote, adding to confusion ...

Mali: Soumaila Cisse rejects results as ballot counting under way  Al Jazeera English

Mali opposition candidate Soumaila Cisse charges fraud in Mali elections marked by low turnout due to security fears.

Al Jazeera English
Mali coach explains absence of Brighton midfielder Yves Bissouma  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Magassouba says a problem with Yves Bissouma's paperwork led to the Brighton midfielder being left out of the squad for their Africa ...

BBC Sport
Mali: “Real climate of fear and insecurity in country's north and centre,” says expert - Mali  ReliefWeb

BAMAKO/GENEVA (11 October 2018) - The Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Mali, Alioune Tine, has expressed extreme concern about the ...

Mamoudou Gassama: Mali 'Spiderman' becomes French citizen  BBC News

The Malian man who rescued a boy from a balcony in spectacular fashion receives French nationality.

BBC News

Mali Videos

Geography Now! MALI
Geography Now! MALI
The Empire of Mali - The Twang of a Bow - Extra History - #1
The Empire of Mali - The Twang of a Bow - Extra History - #1
Top Tracks - Mali Music
Top Tracks - Mali Music
Malli | මල්ලි - Fill T
Malli | මල්ලි - Fill T
Mali Music - Loved By You (Audio) ft. Jazmine Sullivan
Mali Music - Loved By You (Audio) ft. Jazmine Sullivan
Mali Music - Beautiful
Mali Music - Beautiful
Ground Zero: Mali - Insurgents vs. The Malian Army (Part 1)
Ground Zero: Mali - Insurgents vs. The Malian Army (Part 1)
Dadus gela GYM la || Vinayak Mali || Agri koli comedy
Dadus gela GYM la || Vinayak Mali || Agri koli comedy
Doda chciała od razu! Urszula Rogala o kalendarzu \
Doda chciała od razu! Urszula Rogala o kalendarzu \"Mali Bracia Ubogich\" | przeAmbitni.pl

Mali Images

Tomislav Jagnjic - Rock
Tomislav Jagnjic - Rock
Flagge Mali, Fahne Mali, Maliflagge, Malifahne, malische ...
Flagge Mali, Fahne Mali, Maliflagge, Malifahne, malische ...
Master Bedroom T.V Unit with Study Table | 3D Warehouse
Master Bedroom T.V Unit with Study Table | 3D Warehouse
Matthieu Chedid et Fatoumata Diawara: l'écho de Bamako - L ...
Matthieu Chedid et Fatoumata Diawara: l'écho de Bamako - L ...
African Studies Center | Africa: Maps
African Studies Center | Africa: Maps
World Leaders on Instagram 2017 - Twiplomacy
World Leaders on Instagram 2017 - Twiplomacy
Afrique de l'Ouest carte géographique gratuite, carte ...
Afrique de l'Ouest carte géographique gratuite, carte ...
Samsara: Tells The Story Of Our World
Samsara: Tells The Story Of Our World

Mali WebSites


Mali Wiki

Mali ( (listen); French pronunciation: ​[mali]), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt.Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.