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Tanzania NEWS

Bristow Taking Barrick Helm Aids Acacia Talks, Tanzania AG Says  Bloomberg

Mark Bristow taking over the leadership of Barrick Gold Corp. facilitated negotiations with Tanzania about a multibillion-dollar tax dispute that could be resolved ...

Tanzania’s leader, the “Bulldozer”, runs off course  The Economist

SEDITION AND statistics are two words that crop up with increasing regularity in the utterances of officials loyal to Tanzania's president, John Magufuli.

The Economist
Tanzania is a police state: opposition politicians say after jail stint  africanews

Two opposition politicians in Tanzania, including the head of the Chadema party on Friday said the country has become a 'police state', where citizens are afriad ...

A Martinsville health care worker was so moved by problems in Tanzania that she the people her mission.  Martinsville Bulletin

What started out as a summer volunteer trip turned into the beginning of a nonprofit organization for a nurse practitioner from Martinsville.

Martinsville Bulletin
Back to Tanzania: FinTech entrepreneur brings digital banking to East Africa  Fast Company

Gates foundation alum and Stanford MBA Benjamin Fernandes tells the inspirational story behind mobile app startup NALA.

Fast Company
Chinese 'Ivory Queen' Sentenced To 15 Years In Jail In Tanzania  NPR

Yang Fenglan, who has lived in Tanzania on and off for decades and operated a Chinese restaurant, was found guilty of working with two Tanzanian men to ...

Nala has built a hassle-free, offline mobile money payment platform for Africa  TechCrunch

Benjamin Fernandes, the Tanzanian co-founder chief executive of Nala, spent hundreds of hours talking to local Tanzanians about their frustrations with mobile ...

Tanzania launches international gold exchange market  African Daily Voice

Johannesburg, South Africa (ADV) – Tanzania recently launched an international gold exchange market in the Geita region, with a view of increasing revenues ...

African Daily Voice
UPDATE 3-Tanzania orders cleanup at Acacia gold mine, threatens closure  CNBC

North Mara mine is Acacia's largest. DAR ES SALAAM, March 8- Acacia Mining Plc must halt waste water pollution at its North Mara gold mine in Tanzania by ...

Is Tanzania discarding Nyerere's freedom-fighting legacy?  African Arguments

Tanzania's stance on Palestine suggests its history of fighting global injustice could be making way for a more pragmatic “economic diplomacy”. Tanzania ...

African Arguments
Five things Tanzania's President 'Bulldozer' Magufuli has banned  BBC News

The policies that have shaped the image of Tanzania's no-nonsense president.

BBC News
Tanzania teacher to hang for killing pupil  BBC News

He accused the 14-year-old boy of stealing a female teacher's handbag before beating him to death.

BBC News
Tanzania's private sector calls for harmonised standards  The East African

The private sector in Tanzania has called for expedited harmonisation of standards among East African countries to ease trade between member states and ...

The East African
Tanzania Authorities Cite Bias in Banning of Major English Newspaper  Human Rights Watch

Freedom of expression is under attack once again in Tanzania. Last Wednesday, government authorities notified editors of Tanzania's major English language ...

Human Rights Watch
Life-Saving Drones Fly Medicine to Tanzania's Remotest Spots  Bloomberg

Blood and medicine-filled drones swoop over Lake Victoria, bringing vital care to some of Tanzania's most remote places.

Revealed: Tanzania now prepares to receive 10,000 tourists from China  The Citizen Daily

Dar es Salaam. Implementation of the memorandum of understanding (MoU), signed by the Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB) and Touchroad International Holdings ...

The Citizen Daily
Tanzania and Malawi partner to develop Songwe River Basin  Construction Review

The governments of Tanzania and Malawi have come together and launched a joint commission of the Songwe River Basin aimed at running irrigation.

Construction Review
Tanzania imposes 7-day publication ban on The Citizen  CPJ Press Freedom Online

Nairobi, March 1, 2019--Authorities in Tanzania should lift a seven-day publication ban on the privately owned newspaper The Citizen and allow journalists to ...

CPJ Press Freedom Online
Barrick details proposal to settle Acacia dispute with Tanzania  Reuters

(Reuters) - Canadian miner Barrick Gold outlined on Wednesday details of a deal it reached with the government of Tanzania to settle its disputes with Acacia ...

Tanzanian Golfers' Fire Blanks in Botswana  AllAfrica.com

NATIONAL junior golf team found the going tough in the final round of All-Africa Junior Golf Challenge on Friday, to finish 11th in Gaborone, Botswana.

CCNY Medical students present Tanzania research | The City College of New York  The City College of New York News

Students in the CUNY School of Medicine at The City College of New York presented their research at the 6thAnnual Conference of the NYC Epidemiology ...

The City College of New York News
Tanzania crisis ignored: “You people should look at us”  Norwegian Refugee Council

In Tanzania, a peaceful country hosting 335000 refugees, the lack of funding is so dire that aid agencies are struggling to meet even the most basic needs.

Norwegian Refugee Council
Meet Tanzanian soccer freestyle queen who earned praise from President Trump  CNN

Tanzania soccer freestyle queen Hadhara Charles, earn plaudits from celebrities across the world including US President Donald Trump.

Tanzania: Yanga Suffer Setback in Iringa  AllAfrica.com

YOUNG African's Mainland Premier League title race campaign hit a brick wall yesterday after suffering a 1-0 defeat to Lipuli FC at the Samora Stadium in Iringa ...

Delayed response costs Tanzania $50 million in Konoike saga  The Citizen

Tanzania is to pay a Japanese contractor, Konoike, Sh116 billion after a court in the United States confirmed a decision by the International Court of Arbitration ...

The Citizen
Perspective 6 things to know about refugees in Tanzania  Norwegian Refugee Council

Your mind might jump to safaris and beaches at the mention of the East African country, but Tanzania is also a key host for refugees from its neighbouring ...

Norwegian Refugee Council
Shaky 2019 for Tanzania relations  The East African

Tanzania relations with the international community could be more strained in 2019, due to its “poor commitment to democracy, lack of openness to foreign ...

The East African
Tanzania should stop banning newspapers: HRW  africanews

Human Rights Watch (HRW) has condemned the ban of Tanzania's leading newspaper, The Citizen, saying it is part of a series of attacks on freedom of ...

Tanzania arrests 65 'witchdoctors' over killings  BBC News

At least 10 children were murdered in ritual killings in January and some had body parts removed.

BBC News
Tanzania's Zanzibar to get into land reclamation to spur investments - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

ARUSHA, Tanzania, March 16 (Xinhua) -- Ali Mohamed Shein, President of Tanzania's semi-autonomous archipelago of Zanzibar, on Saturday said that his ...

Tanzania rebases economy, 2015 GDP now 3.8 pct larger - stats office  Reuters Africa

Tanzania has changed the base year it uses to calculate economic output to 2015, and data from the National Bureau of Statistics showed its economy was 3.8 ...

Reuters Africa
Watch Tanzania's Grace Matata express the joy of motherhood  Music In Africa

Tanzanian singer and activist Grace Matata has released a video for her single 'Baby'.

Music In Africa
Uganda's Onyango warns Tanzania ahead of Nations Cup qualifier  BBC Sport

Uganda's Denis Onyango warns Tanzania the Cranes are determined to maintain their unbeaten run when they meet in their final Nations Cup qualifier.

BBC Sport
Minigrids to Bring Electricity to 160,000 islanders in Lake Victoria, Tanzania  Microgrid Knowledge

The solar-hybrid minigrids project aims to provide sustainable electricity and improve lives and livelihoods to islanders in Lake Victoria, Tanzania.

Microgrid Knowledge
Beijing backs jail term for Chinese ‘Ivory Queen’ in Tanzania  South China Morning Post

Beijing said it supported the 15-year jail sentence handed down to a notorious trafficker of elephant tusks by a Tanzanian court on Tuesday, and refused to ...

South China Morning Post
WFP Tanzania Country Brief, January 2019 - United Republic of Tanzania  ReliefWeb

English Situation Report on United Republic of Tanzania and 3 other countries about Agriculture, Coordination, Children, Refugees and more; published on 31 ...

Media release Namibia ready to get U19 Cricket World Cup Africa Qualifier underway 17 Mar 19  International Cricket Council

Namibia will look to qualify for their third consecutive U19 Cricket World Cup, while Kenya are led by Sukdeep Singh, apart of the squad that qualified for 2018 ...

International Cricket Council
Figure of the week: Comparing Tanzania’s modern urban form to its original urban plan  Brookings Institution

A recent report on the effectiveness of urban planning in Tanzania analyzes the links between the planning process and managing better urban growth.

Brookings Institution
Tanzania: Simba Achieve Beyond CAF Target  AllAfrica.com

SIMBA re-wrote history, making it into the quarterfinals of the CAF Champions League after snatching a hard fought 2-1 victory over Congolese giants AS Vita at ...

Tanzania loses Sh 222bn yearly to drought  The Citizen

Tanzania is losing a staggering Sh221.7 billion ($96.6million) a year due to drought affecting maize and legume yields, according to a recent study.

The Citizen
ABM teams up with Katoro Gold for Tanzania project  Proactive Investors UK

African Battery Metals (LON:ABM) - “The agreement announced today complements our existing interests and provides a degree of diversification whilst ...

Proactive Investors UK
Tanzania – Meeting between Jean-Yves Le Drian and his Tanzanian counterpart (Paris, 21.02.19)  France Diplomatie

Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, received Augustine Mahiga, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tanzania, today. (…)

France Diplomatie
Tanzania relaxes protectionist regulations in mining sector  The East African

Ownership restriction has been reduced for local firms and choice of banks.

The East African
Okello named among local stars on Uganda Cranes team for Tanzania clash  Kawowo Sports

Uganda Cranes head coach Sebastien Desabre has included KCCA youngster Allan Okello on the team preparing for the final group L qualifier away to ...

Kawowo Sports
Tanzania suspends leading newspaper over currency report | News | Africa  Mail and Guardian

Tanzania has suspended a leading newspaper and its website for a week accusing it of falsely reporting currency exchange rates. The action against The ...

Mail and Guardian
Tanzania: Government Invites India Firms to Buy Cashews  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

The government yesterday asked Indian companies to purchase Tanzanian cashew nuts and help set up factories for processing the crop locally.

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Tanzania’s economic outlook positive, Mpango assures MPs  The Citizen

Dar es Salaam. As Tanzania prepares to graduate into middle income status by 2025, Finance minister Philip Mpango has maintained that the economy remains ...

The Citizen
Going Places: Beauty of Tanzania  Kingsport Times News

Standing at the edge of the Ngorongoro Crater, John Barrett looks out over 12 miles of a former volcano that is home to lush green scenery and countless forms ...

Kingsport Times News
Tanzania opposition chief slams 'police state' after jail stint  The East African

Freeman Mbowe condemns climate of fear installed by a "police state" after he was held in prison.

The East African
Mozambique's islamist threat al-shabaab has roots in Tanzania  Quartz

Mozambique's northern Cabo Delgado province has been held hostage by insurgents for nearly 17 months. Armed attacks, decapitations and the destruction of ...

Tanzania faces foreign criticism over suspending newspaper  Minneapolis Star Tribune

DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania — Tanzania's government is facing international criticism over its suspension of a widely read local newspaper that reported on the ...

Minneapolis Star Tribune
Tanzania: JPM Furious Over Project Delay  AllAfrica.com

It's the one which was entrusted to TBA in 2016 to build residential houses for Ukonga Prison warders.

IIAC provides BHS training for Tanzania Airport Authority personnel  CAPA - Centre for Aviation

Incheon International Airport Corporation (IIAC) reportedly provided baggage handling system (BHS) operational training for Tanzania Airport Authority (TAA) ...

CAPA - Centre for Aviation
The ‘Ivory Queen’ Is Sentenced to 15 Years in a Tanzanian Prison for Smuggling Tons of Elephant Tusks Into Asia  artnet News

A Tanzanian court has sentenced Yang Feng Glan, the Chinese-born "Ivory Queen," to 15 years in prison for smuggling ivory.

artnet News
Acacia Mining minorities can't afford to turn down Barrick's Tanzania proposal  Mining MX

THE hullabaloo that followed Barrick Gold's $18bn hostile takeover proposal of Newmont Mining, now withdrawn after the two firms agreed to pool their Nevada ...

Mining MX
Unguja Ukuu – Unguja Ukuu, Tanzania  Atlas Obscura

Discover Unguja Ukuu in Unguja Ukuu, Tanzania: A remote island settlement off the coast of Tanzania is a storied archaeological site with an ancient past.

Atlas Obscura
Tanzania: Student Killed, 30 Injured As Bus Collides With Train  AllAfrica.com

Grief engulfed the home of Ramadhan Fikirini, a Horten Secondary School student, who died after a minibus he was travelling in with 30 others hit a moving train ...

Tanzanian Woman Feeds Family with Soccer Ball Skills  Voice of America

Hadhara Charles Mjeje makes as much as $50 a day demonstrating her ability to “juggle” a soccer ball all over Africa.

Voice of America
Exim in plan to take over rival lender UBL Tanzania  The Citizen

Dar es Salaam. The banking industry in Tanzania is expected to record another consolidation move after Exim Bank Tanzania Group announced a plan to ...

The Citizen
Tanzania: Tigo to Cough Up 100m/ - for Breaching Copyright  AllAfrica.com

MIC Tanzania Limited, trading as Tigo, is to pay 100m/- to Kijitonyama Lutheran Church Choir for infringing a copyright of a song called 'Hakuna Mungu kama ...

Ex-chief of Tanzania's Bank M charged with fraud, money laundering  IOL

INTERNATIONAL – The former chief executive officer of Tanzania's Bank M was charged with fraud and money laundering on Thursday, two months after the ...

Pump prices of diesel, kerosene go up in Tanzania  The East African

Changes in prices pegged on world oil market prices and an increases in the basis point premiums.

The East African
Tanzania: Govt Starts Land Identification, Registration Plan  AllAfrica.com

A NEWLY launched government programme, which aims at identifying and registering all land in unplanned urban settings countrywide to help occupiers ...

Tanzanian opposition women's leader released - party  EWN

Halima Mdee was arrested on Saturday in Tanzania's economic capital Dar es Salaam after meetings with her constituents, where she was critical of ...

Japanese Co. Gets OK Of $61M Award Against Tanzania  Law360

Law360 (March 8, 2019, 3:01 PM EST) -- A D.C. federal judge confirmed a Japanese company's more than $61 million arbitration award stemming from a ...

Tanzania: Our Boeing 787-8 Is Safe, ATCL Says  AllAfrica.com

AIR Tanzania Company Limited (ATCL) has assured customers that its series of airplanes Boeing 787-8 is safe, with no record of accidents or incidents.

Tanzanian and South African experts exchange expertise  UNAIDS

A Tanzanian delegation touring South Africa has stressed the role of political leadership in the AIDS response and noted the importance of matching policies ...

Tanzania, Kenya now row over border screening  The East African

Both countries are double checking the other's goods, resulting in clearance delays.

The East African
Kifafa: The mystery of East Africa's 'nodding disease'  BBC News

The rare illness may unlock new treatments to many other neurological conditions.

BBC News
FIFA bans referee from Tanzania for life for taking bribes  Tacoma News Tribune

FIFA says its ethics committee imposed a life ban on referee Oden Charles Mbaga of Tanzania for taking bribes.

Tacoma News Tribune
Tanzania: Presiding Bishop calls for leadership values that foster unity  The Lutheran World Federation

Church unity, sustainability, and a vibrant church were key topics at a recent retreat of bishops, management team, youth and women leaders of the Evangelical ...

The Lutheran World Federation
Tanzania: Shein, Magufuli Success Needs to Be Maintained - Samia  AllAfrica.com

VICE-PRESIDENT, Samia Suluhu Hassan, has reminded Tanzanians that the admirable achievements gained in both Zanzibar and mainland needs to be ...

Tanzania's Chamber of Commerce Looks to Boost Agriculture  AllAfrica.com

The Tanzania Chamber of Commerce (TCCIA) is set to award stakeholders who have done tremendous and extraordinary work that contributed to the growth of ...

Tanzania: Shein Calls for Research to Support Development  AllAfrica.com

PRESIDENT Ali Mohamed Shein says Zanzibar can make further progress in achieving development goals and overcome challenges if research, monitoring, ...

Magufuli kicks TBA out of Prisons project  The Citizen

President John Magufuli yesterday ordered the Tanzania People's Defence Forces (TPDF) to take over the Ukonga Prison Housing project after an apparent ...

The Citizen
Uganda oil pipeline to wait for a while  The East African

Uganda, Tanzania and their partners in the East African Crude Oil Pipeline are yet to agree on provisions of the host government agreement, shareholder ...

The East African
Relief for Tanzania's artisanal miners as govt comes down hard on the big boy  The East African

The reforms in Tanzania's mining sector have come as a boon for the small-scale miners, as the government has set its sights on multinational firms, on whom it ...

The East African
Tanzania: Lake Victoria to Supply Water to More Regions, Minister  AllAfrica.com

AS the commemoration of the national Water Week kicked off yesterday, the government plans to extend water supply from Lake Victoria to more regions within ...

Tanzania: Stiegler's Hydroelectric Power Project to Create Over 5000 Jobs  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

AT least 5400 Tanzanians are set to get employment during the implementation of Stiegler's Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station (SGHPS), which will be able to ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Tanzanian arrested for rock cocaine in KwaDukuza  North Coast Courier

A foreign national was arrested after he was found in possession of 16 rock cocaine pieces in KwaDukuza on Friday night. KwaDukuza police spokesperson ...

North Coast Courier
Tanzania: CIC Insurance Profit Jumps 30.7 Percent Buoyed By Premiums  AllAfrica.com

Listed underwriter CIC Insurance has reported a 30.7 per cent rise in net profit for the year ended December 31, 2018, buoyed by an increase in the value of ...

Climbing Kilimanjaro: Science teacher prepares for Tanzania trip  The Ridgefield Press

The Ridgefield Academy science teacher departs for Tanzania Friday, March 8, where he will spend a week climbing Mount Kilimanjaro to raise money for the ...

The Ridgefield Press
Kenya-Tanzania link road helps boost regional trade  Business Daily

The upgrade of Voi-Taveta-Holili highway, a key link road between Kenya and Tanzania, has enhanced cross-border trade between the East African Community ...

Business Daily
Tanzanian teacher sentenced to death after pupil died of beating  EWN

The child, Sperius Eradius, died on 27 August 27, days after the beating for allegedly stealing another teacher's handbag, according to family members. Picture: ...

Standard Chartered launches digitally-led banks in Tanzania, Ghana  IOL

Standard Chartered announced that it has completed a simultaneous multi-market launch of its digitally-led retail banks in Tanzania and Ghana.

Tanzania Vs Uganda Cranes: Desabre defends team selection  Kawowo Sports

KCCA football club youngster Allan Okello and Vipers' defender Halid Lwaliwa are the rookies on the main stream team.

Kawowo Sports
CPJ slams ban on Tanzania's The Citizen newspaper  IOL

Authorities in Tanzania should lift a seven-day publication ban on the privately owned newspaper The Citizen and allow journalists ...

24 players turn up for Uganda Cranes first session ahead of Tanzania clash  Kawowo Sports

The Uganda Cranes has embarked on the preparations for the final group L match of the AFCON 2019 qualifiers away to Tanzania.

Kawowo Sports
Tanzania threatens to close gold mine over waste water pollution  The Standard

[Photo: Courtesy] Acacia Mining Plc must halt waste water pollution at its North Mara gold mine in Tanzania by March 30 or the facility will be shut down, the ...

The Standard
Elephant grass threat to Tanzania's Ngorongoro park  The East African

Authorities in Ngorongoro Conservation Area are fighting the spread of an invasive elephant grass now spreading to occupy the highlands of the wildlife-rich ...

The East African
Tanzania's Regulatory Authorities to Merge  AllAfrica.com

Tanzania's Prime Minister Hon. Kassim Majaliwa directed the merger of the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority (TFDA) and Tanzania Bureau of Standards ...

UCSF Radiologists Collaborate in Tanzania  UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging

The cancer burden in sub-Saharan Africa is growing. In Tanzania, the number of new cancer cases doubled between 2006 and 2013 alone. In high-income ...

UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging
Tanzanian Farmers Don't Vaccinate Against Foot and Mouth Disease. Here's Why  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Analysis - Foot-and-mouth-disease is one of the world's most contagious and economically damaging diseases. Infected animals develop lesions on the feet, ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Uganda Cranes will have no mercy for Tanzania, says Desabre  Kawowo Sports

Uganda Cranes head coach Sebastien Desabre admits they will make life difficult for Tanzania since they need to finish the qualification campaign on a strong ...

Kawowo Sports
Watershed moment: Scholar's studies on lakes worldwide sound environmental alarm  Illinois State University News

ISU scientist Catherine O'Reilly has been leading international research teams that have found climate change is warming lakes worldwide.

Illinois State University News
Africa: World's First 'Blockchain Baby' Is Tanzanian  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

In an effort to improve access to healthcare, an Irish medical project made history by registering the world's first 'blockchain baby' in Tanzania, news reports ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Air Tanzania sees future in Zim  The Zimbabwe Standard

BY MISHMA CHAKANYUKA. Air Tanzanian says it sees growth opportunities in Zimbabwe despite the economic hardships, which the southern African country ...

The Zimbabwe Standard
Tanzania: This Is Why Every Artist Yawns for an Award  AllAfrica.com

It has been almost four years since the last Kilimanjaro Music Awards were held at Mlimani City Conference Hall, it was a scene that the industry had become ...

Tanzania's private sector to push for investment in processing industry  IOL

DAR ES SALAAM – The Tanzania Private Sector Foundation (TPSF) said on Thursday it will from next week embark on countrywide roadshows to sensitize ...

Tanzania: Kenya, Tanzania Close Mobile Phone Use Gender Gap  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Kenya and Tanzania are among low and middle-income countries that have significantly managed to narrow the gender gap in mobile and mobile Internet ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Tanzania Videos

I Found A Paradise In Zanzibar Tanzania
I Found A Paradise In Zanzibar Tanzania
Tanzania Is So Beautiful!
Tanzania Is So Beautiful!
You HaveTo Visit This Town Whenever You Are In Tanzania
You HaveTo Visit This Town Whenever You Are In Tanzania
Lærlinge i Tanzania - Sammenhold langt hjemmefra (3:4)
Lærlinge i Tanzania - Sammenhold langt hjemmefra (3:4)
You Won't Believe This Is Tanzania
You Won't Believe This Is Tanzania
The Craziest Thing I found In Tanzania
The Craziest Thing I found In Tanzania
Madrileños por el mundo: Tanzania, un país que anima a la aventura
Madrileños por el mundo: Tanzania, un país que anima a la aventura
तंज़ानिया देश के अजीब चौंकाने वाले तथ्य Amazing Facts About Tanzania In Hindi 2018
तंज़ानिया देश के अजीब चौंकाने वाले तथ्य Amazing Facts About Tanzania In Hindi 2018

Tanzania Images

Tanzania Landscapes Page
Tanzania Landscapes Page
Uhuru Torch - Wikipedia
Uhuru Torch - Wikipedia
Serengeti Sunset. | The sun sets over Serengeti National ...
Serengeti Sunset. | The sun sets over Serengeti National ...
Leopard drinking from water hole | Photo taken by Stephen ...
Leopard drinking from water hole | Photo taken by Stephen ...
False-dotted Border
False-dotted Border
Palmer Station, Antarctica
Palmer Station, Antarctica
Adenium Species page 3
Adenium Species page 3
Aloe duckeri
Aloe duckeri
Signature Ethan - Inspired Journeys
Signature Ethan - Inspired Journeys

Tanzania WebSites


Tanzania Wiki

Tanzania (), officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.The very first hominids known lived in Pilocene Tanzania 6 million years ago. The Australopithecus genus lived 4-2 million years ago all over Africa; and the oldest remains of the Homo genus are found near Lake Olduvai. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens also overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, and their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire, medicine, and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them.Later in the Stone and Bronze age, some prehistoric population migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia; Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago; and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located. Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. The country does not have a de jure official language, although the national language is Swahili. Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.